Culture And Customs Of Pakistan By Iftikhar Haider Malik Pdf
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- Islam, Nationalism and the West
- Islam, Nationalism and the West
- Culture of Pakistan
- Iftikhar Haider Malik
The History of Pakistan explores the rich and intricate past of a highly diverse nation still in the process of determining its own identity. Rooted in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, shaped by the cultures of both the Middle and Far East, and now predominantly devoted to Islam, Pakistan has emerged as a unique Indo-Muslim community, viewed with caution and curiosity by the rest of the world.
Islam, Nationalism and the West
The culture of these Pakistani ethnic groups have been greatly influenced by many of its neighbours, such as the other South Asian , Iranic , Turkic as well as the peoples of Central Asia and West Asia. The region has formed a distinct unit within the main geographical complex of South Asia , the Middle East and Central Asia from the earliest times, and is analogous to the intermediary position of Afghanistan.
Their cultural origins also reveal influences from far afield and indigenous, including Ancient India and Central Asia. Pakistan was the first region of the Indian subcontinent to be fully impacted by Islam and has thus developed a distinct Islamic identity, historically different from areas further east.
Pakistani literature originates from when Pakistan gained its independence as a sovereign state in The common and shared tradition of Urdu literature and English literature of Greater India was inherited by the new state. Over a period of time, a body of literature unique to Pakistan emerged, written in the major languages, including Urdu , English , Punjabi , Pashto , Seraiki , Balochi , and Sindhi. Poetry is a highly respected art and profession in Pakistan.
The pre-eminent form of poetry in Pakistan almost always originates in Persian, due in part to the long-standing affiliation and heavy admiration the region's rulers once had for certain aspects of Persian culture. The enthusiasm for poetry exists at a regional level as well, with nearly all of Pakistan's provincial languages continuing the legacy. Since the independence of the country in and establishment of Urdu as the national language, poetry is written in that language as well.
Apart from Urdu poetry , Pakistani poetry also has blends of other regional languages. Balochi, Sindhi, Punjabi, Seraiki, and Pashto poetry have all incorporated and influenced Pakistani poetry. The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali which is played by men clapping, singing and playing drums and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and Western music.
Pakistan is home to many famous folk singers such as the late Alam Lohar , who is also well known in Indian Punjab. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has rekindled Dari music and established Peshawar as a hub for Afghan musicians and a distribution center for such music abroad.
These are very similar to stage plays in theatres. They are performed by well-known actors and actresses in the Lollywood industry. The dramas and plays often deal with themes from everyday life , often with a humorous touch. During the 16th to 18th centuries, Mughal painting developed, heavily influenced by Persian miniatures. Pakistani vehicle art is a popular folk art. The architecture of the areas now constituting Pakistan can be traced to four distinct periods: pre-Islamic , Islamic , colonial , and post-colonial.
With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium  B. The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandhara style. The arrival of Islam in today's Pakistan introduced the classical Islamic construction techniques into Pakistan's architectural landscape.
During the Mughal era , design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with, and often produced playful forms of, local art, resulting in the establishment of Mughal Architecture. Lahore , occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits a multiplicity of important buildings from the empire, among them the Badshahi mosque , the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate , the colourful, still strongly Mughal -influenced Wazir Khan Mosque as well as numerous other mosques and mausoleums.
In the British colonial age, the buildings developed were predominantly of European styles such as gothic, baroque and neoclassical. The Indo-Saracenic style , with a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components, also developed during this period. Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque , Pakistan Monument , the Minar-e-Pakistan and the Mazar-e-Quaid.
The official national sport of Pakistan is field hockey , but cricket and football are the most popular sports. The Pakistan national field hockey team has won the Hockey World Cup a record four times, , , and The Pakistan national cricket team won the Cricket World Cup in , were runners-up in , and co-hosted the games in and The team also won the Austral-Asia Cup in , , and The women's team is yet to win a world cup.
At the international level, Pakistan has competed many times at the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing , athletics , swimming , and shooting. Hockey is the sport in which Pakistan has been most successful at the Olympics, winning three gold medals , , and A1 Grand Prix racing is also becoming popular with the entry of a Pakistani team in the season. The Tour de Pakistan , modeled on the Tour de France , is an annual cycling competition that covers the length and breadth of Pakistan.
Recently, football has grown in popularity across the country, where traditionally it had been played almost exclusively in the western province of Balochistan. FIFA has recently teamed up with the government to bring football closer to the northern areas. There are variations of cooking practices across the country, mostly from spicy in Punjab and Sindh to steamed and boiled in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Urban centers of the country offer an amalgamation of recipes from all parts of the country, while food with specific local ingredients and tastes is available in rural areas and villages.
Different specialties exist throughout the country mostly different type of rice like Biryani, Pulao or Boiled rice with vegetables and meat are used with Korma and desserts.
There are also local forms of grilled meat or kebabs , Kheer desserts , and a variety of hot and cold drinks. It is one of the most consumed beverages in Pakistani cuisine.
Pakistan does produce its own limited tea in Shinkiari KP farms, however it ranks as the third largest importer of tea in the world. While green tea has been an ancient tradition in Pakistan for thousands of years, black tea was originally introduced and popularized during the colonial British era in South Asia. Cities such as Lahore had one of the most vibrant tea cultures, as the drink quickly absorbed into local culture.
The shield on the State emblem of Pakistan notably features a tea crop in one of its quarters. Tea is usually consumed at breakfast, during lunch breaks at the workplace, and in the evening at home. Evening tea may be consumed with typically something sweet such as biscuits or cake but can also be served with a savory snack such as samosas, depending on the amount of time one has. Guests are typically offered a choice between tea and soft drinks.
It is common practice for homeowners to offer tea breaks to hired labour, and sometimes even provide them with tea during the breaks. Tea offered to labour is typically strong and has more sugar in it. High teas are common at hotels and restaurants, and are usually buffet-style meals with light snacks. Tea making techniques vary from home to home, and person to person, but tea is typically made from loose tea leaves and steeped for a couple of minutes before serving.
A teapot and tea cosy may be used, if time permits, or tea may be steeped directly in the kettle off the heat. After steeping, the tea is poured into cups through a strainer. Milk may be added before or after the tea, but sugar is typically offered separately so that each individual may add sugar according to his or her own taste.
Teabags are usually reserved for when time constraints do not enable one to prepare tea from loose tea leaves. Tea served is typically black, with milk, although green tea is becoming increasingly popular. While black tea is very rarely consumed without milk, green tea is never served with milk. Most of the tea consumed in Pakistan is imported from Kenya. After , the Pakistani government began to implement a tea plantation project, which established green tea estates in Pakistan and achieved good performance.
Different regions throughout the country have their own different flavors and varieties, giving Pakistani tea culture a diverse blend. Biscuits and paan are common delicacies and staples enjoyed with tea. In the northern and western parts of the country, including Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Balochistan and much of Kashmir , the popular green tea called " kahwah " is predominant.
In Kashmir , Kashmiri chai or " Noon Chai ", a pink, milky tea with pistachios and cardamom , is consumed primarily at special occasions, weddings, and during the winter months when it is sold in many kiosks.
In the further north Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan regions, Central Asian variants such as salty buttered Tibetan style tea are consumed. Ramadan , the holiest month of the Islamic calendar , is a month of fasting from dawn to sunset. It is widely observed by Pakistan's Muslim majority. Muslims during this month will fast, attend mosques with increased frequency, and offer "Namaz-traveeh" every day with Isha prayer and recite Qur'an.
Special foods are cooked in greater quantities, parties are held, and special accommodation is made by workplaces and educational institutes. Chand Raat is the Moon night when crescent moon is sighted on last day of Islamic month of Ramadan and next day is Eid ul-Fitr.
In the night known as Chand Raat, people celebrate by various means, such as girls putting henna on their hands. People buy gifts and sweets that will be given to friends and families who come over to celebrate the end of Ramadan.
The streets, major buildings, and landmarks, even outside of malls and plazas, put on displays of elaborate decorations and colorful light shows. There are large crowds in the city center to celebrate the beginning of Eid, and it is usually a boom time for business. The two Eids, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha , commemorate the passing of the month of fasting, Ramadan, and the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah.
On these days, there are national holidays and many festival events that take place to celebrate Eid. As Pakistan is a Muslim state, there are three days off for all businesses and government offices. On the night before Eid, people search for the new moon to mark the end of Ramadan and arrival of Eid ul-Fitr.
The day starts with morning prayers, then returning home for a large breakfast with family members. The day is spent visiting relatives and friends and sharing gifts and sweets with everyone. During the evening, Pakistanis often party, visit restaurants or relax in city parks. On Eid ul-Fitr, money is given for charity and as gifts to young children.
On Eid ul-Adha, people may also distribute meat to relatives and neighbors and donate food to charity. Milaad un Nabi is a known religious festival which is celebrated in all over Pakistan. The Milaad is the celebration of the birthday of the Islamic last prophet Muhammad.
Muharram is a month of remembrance and modern Shia meditation that is often considered synonymous with Ashura. Ashura, which literally means the "Tenth" in Arabic, refers to the tenth day of Muharram. It is well-known because of historical significance and mourning for the martyrdom of Hussein Ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad . Shias begin mourning from the first night of Muharram and continue for ten nights, climaxing on the 10th of Muharram, known as the Day of Ashura.
The last few days up until and including the Day of Ashura are the most important because these were the days in which Imam Hussein and his family and followers including women, children, and elderly people were deprived of water from the 7th onward and on the 10th, Imam Hussain and 72 of his followers were martyred by the army of Yazid I at the Battle of Karbala on Yazid's orders.
The surviving members of Imam Hussein's family and those of his followers were taken captive, marched to Damascus, and imprisoned there. With the sighting of the new moon , the Islamic New Year is ushered in. The first month, Muharram is one of the four sacred months that [Allah] has mentioned in the Quran. Jashn-e-Baharan sometimes referred to as Basant , is a pre-Islamic Punjabi festival that marks the coming of spring.
Islam, Nationalism and the West
The culture of these Pakistani ethnic groups have been greatly influenced by many of its neighbours, such as the other South Asian , Iranic , Turkic as well as the peoples of Central Asia and West Asia. The region has formed a distinct unit within the main geographical complex of South Asia , the Middle East and Central Asia from the earliest times, and is analogous to the intermediary position of Afghanistan. Their cultural origins also reveal influences from far afield and indigenous, including Ancient India and Central Asia. Pakistan was the first region of the Indian subcontinent to be fully impacted by Islam and has thus developed a distinct Islamic identity, historically different from areas further east. Pakistani literature originates from when Pakistan gained its independence as a sovereign state in
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Culture of Pakistan
This is a fine study and will become a classic reference work for students and scholars of South Asia and a piece of scholarship very much worth emulating. Hilali, Contemporary South Asia. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide.
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Iftikhar Haider Malik
Published by Pan Macmillan Contact seller. Seller Rating:. Used hardcover Condition: Very Good. Within U. May have limited writing in cover pages. Pages are unmarked.
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Это лишь означает, - сказала она, пожимая плечами, - что сегодня мы не взломали ни одного шифра. ТРАНСТЕКСТ устроил себе перерыв. - Перерыв? - Бринкерхофф не был в этом уверен.