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- Expert Spring MVC and Web Flow
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Introducing new learning courses and educational videos from Apress. Start watching. Spring MVC is a modern web application framework built upon the Spring Framework, and Spring Web Flow is a new project that compliments Spring MVC for building reusable web controller modules that encapsulate rich page navigation rules. Along with detailed analysis of the code and functionality, plus the first-published coverage of Spring Web Flow, this book includes numerous tips and tricks to help you get the most out of Spring MVC, Spring Web Flow, and web development in general. Spring MVC and Spring Web Flow are engineered with an important consideration for design patterns and expert object oriented programming techniques.
Expert Spring MVC and Web Flow download ebook
The Spring Web model-view-controller MVC framework is designed around a DispatcherServlet that dispatches requests to handlers, with configurable handler mappings, view resolution, locale, time zone and theme resolution as well as support for uploading files. The default handler is based on the Controller and RequestMapping annotations, offering a wide range of flexible handling methods.
With the introduction of Spring 3. As a developer you cannot override these methods to supply your own behavior. This has not been done arbitrarily, but specifically with this principle in mind. Alternatively, see. You cannot add advice to final methods when you use Spring MVC. For example, you cannot add advice to the AbstractController. In Spring Web MVC you can use any object as a command or form-backing object; you do not need to implement a framework-specific interface or base class.
Thus you need not duplicate your business objects' properties as simple, untyped strings in your form objects simply to handle invalid submissions, or to convert the Strings properly.
Instead, it is often preferable to bind directly to your business objects. A Controller is typically responsible for preparing a model Map with data and selecting a view name but it can also write directly to the response stream and complete the request. View name resolution is highly configurable through file extension or Accept header content type negotiation, through bean names, a properties file, or even a custom ViewResolver implementation.
The model the M in MVC is a Map interface, which allows for the complete abstraction of the view technology. The model Map is simply transformed into an appropriate format, such as JSP request attributes, a Velocity template model. If you have a business process or processes that would benefit from a conversational model as opposed to a purely request model, then SWF may be the solution.
SWF allows you to capture logical page flows as self-contained modules that are reusable in different situations, and as such is ideal for building web application modules that guide the user through controlled navigations that drive business processes.
Non-Spring MVC implementations are preferable for some projects. Many teams expect to leverage their existing investment in skills and tools, for example with JSF. No "plug-ins" are involved, so no dedicated integration is necessary. Spring does not compete with other web frameworks in this scenario.
It simply addresses the many areas that the pure web MVC frameworks do not, from bean configuration to data access and transaction handling. It is completely integrated with the Spring IoC container and as such allows you to use every other feature that Spring has. The pattern-savvy reader will recognize that the DispatcherServlet is an expression of the "Front Controller" design pattern this is a pattern that Spring Web MVC shares with many other leading web frameworks.
The DispatcherServlet is an actual Servlet it inherits from the HttpServlet base class , and as such is declared in the web. You need to map requests that you want the DispatcherServlet to handle, by using a URL mapping in the same web. This is standard Java EE Servlet configuration; the following example shows such a DispatcherServlet declaration and mapping:.
In a Servlet 3. Below is the code based equivalent of the above web. WebApplicationInitializer is an interface provided by Spring MVC that ensures your code-based configuration is detected and automatically used to initialize any Servlet 3 container. An abstract base class implementation of this interace named AbstractDispatcherServletInitializer makes it even easier to register the DispatcherServlet by simply specifying its servlet mapping. See Code-based Servlet container initialization for more details.
These inherited beans can be overridden in the servlet-specific scope, and you can define new scope-specific beans local to a given Servlet instance. Consider the following DispatcherServlet Servlet configuration in the web.
You can change the exact location of this configuration file through a Servlet initialization parameter see below for details. It is also possible to have just one root context for single DispatcherServlet scenarios by setting an empty contextConfigLocation servlet init parameter, as shown below:. The WebApplicationContext is an extension of the plain ApplicationContext that has some extra features necessary for web applications.
The Spring DispatcherServlet uses special beans to process requests and render the appropriate views. These beans are part of Spring MVC. You can choose which special beans to use by simply configuring one or more of them in the WebApplicationContext. More on that in the next section. First see the table below listing the special bean types the DispatcherServlet relies on.
Maps incoming requests to handlers and a list of pre- and post-processors handler interceptors based on some criteria the details of which vary by HandlerMapping implementation. The most popular implementation supports annotated controllers but other implementations exists as well. Helps the DispatcherServlet to invoke a handler mapped to a request regardless of the handler is actually invoked. For example, invoking an annotated controller requires resolving various annotations.
Thus the main purpose of a HandlerAdapter is to shield the DispatcherServlet from such details. Resolves the locale a client is using and possibly their time zone, in order to be able to offer internationalized views. Stores and retrieves the "input" and the "output" FlashMap that can be used to pass attributes from one request to another, usually across a redirect.
As mentioned in the previous section for each special bean the DispatcherServlet maintains a list of implementations to use by default. This information is kept in the file DispatcherServlet. All special beans have some reasonable defaults of their own. Regardless of the details, the important concept to understand here is that once you configure a special bean such as an InternalResourceViewResolver in your WebApplicationContext , you effectively override the list of default implementations that would have been used otherwise for that special bean type.
For example if you configure an InternalResourceViewResolver , the default list of ViewResolver implementations is ignored. Regardless of how you choose to configure your application, the concepts explained in this section are fundamental should be of help to you. After you set up a DispatcherServlet , and a request comes in for that specific DispatcherServlet , the DispatcherServlet starts processing the request as follows:.
Handler exception resolvers that are declared in the WebApplicationContext pick up exceptions that are thrown during processing of the request. Using these exception resolvers allows you to define custom behaviors to address exceptions. The process of determining the last modification date for a specific request is straightforward: the DispatcherServlet looks up an appropriate handler mapping and tests whether the handler that is found implements the LastModified interface.
If so, the value of the long getLastModified request method of the LastModified interface is returned to the client. You can customize individual DispatcherServlet instances by adding Servlet initialization parameters init-param elements to the Servlet declaration in the web. See the following table for the list of supported parameters. Class that implements WebApplicationContext , which instantiates the context used by this Servlet.
By default, the XmlWebApplicationContext is used. String that is passed to the context instance specified by contextClass to indicate where context s can be found. The string consists potentially of multiple strings using a comma as a delimiter to support multiple contexts. In case of multiple context locations with beans that are defined twice, the latest location takes precedence.
Namespace of the WebApplicationContext. Defaults to [servlet-name]-servlet. Controllers provide access to the application behavior that you typically define through a service interface.
Controllers interpret user input and transform it into a model that is represented to the user by the view. Spring implements a controller in a very abstract way, which enables you to create a wide variety of controllers. Spring 2. Controllers implemented in this style do not have to extend specific base classes or implement specific interfaces. Furthermore, they do not usually have direct dependencies on Servlet or Portlet APIs, although you can easily configure access to Servlet or Portlet facilities.
As you can see, the Controller and RequestMapping annotations allow flexible method names and signatures. In this particular example the method accepts a Model and returns a view name as a String , but various other method parameters and return values can be used as explained later in this section.
This section documents these annotations and how they are most commonly used in a Servlet environment. The Controller annotation indicates that a particular class serves the role of a controller. Spring does not require you to extend any controller base class or reference the Servlet API. However, you can still reference Servlet-specific features if you need to. The Controller annotation acts as a stereotype for the annotated class, indicating its role.
The dispatcher scans such annotated classes for mapped methods and detects RequestMapping annotations see the next section. However, the Controller stereotype also allows for autodetection, aligned with Spring general support for detecting component classes in the classpath and auto-registering bean definitions for them.
To enable autodetection of such annotated controllers, you add component scanning to your configuration. Use the spring-context schema as shown in the following XML snippet:.
Typically the class-level annotation maps a specific request path or path pattern onto a form controller, with additional method-level annotations narrowing the primary mapping for a specific HTTP method request method "GET", "POST", etc.
The following example from the Petcare sample shows a controller in a Spring MVC application that uses this annotation:. In the example, the RequestMapping is used in a number of places. See the next section. A RequestMapping on the class level is not required. Without it, all paths are simply absolute, and not relative. The following example from the PetClinic sample application shows a multi-action controller using RequestMapping :.
In some cases a controller may need to be decorated with an AOP proxy at runtime. One example is if you choose to have Transactional annotations directly on the controller. When this is the case, for controllers specifically, we recommend using class-based proxying. This is typically the default choice with controllers. However if a controller must implement an interface that is not a Spring Context callback e.
The Spring Framework is an application framework and inversion of control container for the Java platform. The framework's core features can be used by any Java application, but there are extensions for building web applications on top of the Java EE Enterprise Edition platform. Although the framework does not impose any specific programming model , it has become popular in the Java community as an addition to the Enterprise JavaBeans EJB model. The Spring Framework is open source. The framework was first released under the Apache 2.
Expert Spring MVC and Web Flow
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Table As mentioned in Chapter 11, you would typically require these methods to be executed before and after a form view is displayed. Listing shows how to do this.
Expert Spring MVC and Web Flow phần 10 potx
Colin Yates is a J2EE principal architect who specializes in web-based development. He has been a freelance consultant for the past three years and has worked in a number of environments, both structured and chaotic. Since graduating with a software engineering degree in , he has held a number of positions, including development lead, principal systems engineer, mentor, and professional trainer.
Today's Books. Ican still remember the time I first realized what the Spring Framework was and how it could help me. I was tasked with building a web application that will register new businesses with the local government, and being a Java shop this meant the standard set of frameworks at the time: Struts, JavaServer Pages JSP , and Hibernate.
Spring MVC natively supports JSP, FreeMarker, Velocity, XSLT, JasperReports, Excel, and PDF. The k4lra.orgsolver provides a.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Yates , C.
The Spring Web model-view-controller MVC framework is designed around a DispatcherServlet that dispatches requests to handlers, with configurable handler mappings, view resolution, locale, time zone and theme resolution as well as support for uploading files. The default handler is based on the Controller and RequestMapping annotations, offering a wide range of flexible handling methods. With the introduction of Spring 3. As a developer you cannot override these methods to supply your own behavior.
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