microbiome and cancer review pdf

Microbiome And Cancer Review Pdf

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Published: 12.12.2020

The microbiome is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that share our body space 1.

Gut Microbiota and Cancer: From Pathogenesis to Therapy

PLoS Pathog 13 9 : e This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. These hallmark capabilities have given us remarkable insight into the multistep changes that occur within the tissue microenvironment during cancer development. However, it has become well established that host-associated microbial communities, termed microbiota, also play integral roles in modulating various aspects of host physiology.

The microbiome and lung cancer

In the past decade, more cancer researchers have begun to understand the significance of cancer prevention, which has prompted a shift in the increasing body of scientific literature. An area of fascination and great potential is the human microbiome. That in mind, racial disparities with regard to colorectal cancer treatment and prevention are generally understudied despite higher incidence and mortality rates among Non-Hispanic Blacks compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. A comprehension of ethnic differences with relation to colorectal cancer, dietary habits and the microbiome is a meritorious area of investigation. This review highlights literature that identifies and bridges the gap in understanding the role of the human microbiome in racial disparities across colorectal cancer. Herein, we explore the differences in the gut microbiota, common short chain fatty acids produced in abundance by microbes, and their association with racial differences in cancer acquisition. Core tip: In this paper, we summarize the literature in relation to the gut microbiome and colorectal cancer.

Gut microbiota, chemotherapy and the host: the influence of the gut microbiota on cancer treatment

Cancer is a multifactorial pathology and it represents the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conversely, several microbiota subpopulations may expand during pathological dysbiosis and therefore produce high levels of toxins capable, in turn, to trigger both inflammation and tumorigenesis. Importantly, gut microbiota can interact with the host either modulating directly the gut epithelium or the immune system. Numerous gut populating bacteria, called probiotics, have been identified as protective against the genesis of tumors. Given their capability of preserving gut homeostasis, probiotics are currently tested to help to fight dysbiosis in cancer patients subjected to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Microbiome and Breast Cancer: New Role for an Ancient Population

In the last decade, the role of microbiota-host interactions in driving human cancer plasticity and malignant progression has been well documented. Germ-free preclinical models provided an invaluable tool to demonstrate that the human microbiota can confer susceptibility to various types of cancer and can also modulate the host response to therapeutic treatments. Of interest, besides the detrimental effects of dysbiosis on cancer etiopathogenesis, specific microorganisms have been shown to exert protective activities against cancer growth.

We use an ecological lens to understand how microbes and cancer cells coevolve inside the ecosystems of our bodies. We describe how microbe-cancer cell interactions contribute to cancer progression, including cooperation between microbes and cancer cells. Microbiota influence many aspects of our health including our cancer risk. Since both microbes and cancer cells rely on incoming resources for their survival and replication, excess energy and nutrient input from the host can play a role in cancer initiation and progression. Certain microbes enhance cancer cell fitness by promoting proliferation and protecting cancer cells from the immune system. How diet influences these interactions remains largely unknown but recent evidence suggests a role for nutrients across the cancer continuum. Microbes play an important role in human health and disease, including influencing our cancer risk.

The analysis of microbiota composition has become routine in our time, mostly due to the explosion and availability of new technologies [metagenomic sequencing technologies that incorporate next-generation DNA sequencing methods with the computational approach of targeted 16S rRNA hypervariable regions or whole-genome shotgun sequence reads], that allow for the identification and classification of a great variety of microbial species 1 , 2. The genome of the microbiota is fold more extensive than the human genome 3. The distribution of microbial cells surpasses the number of all human cells, including somatic and germ cells throughout the human body Microbiota is a term that has been established as the sum of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses occupying the host 7. However, defects in the host regulatory circuits that control bacterial sensing and homeostasis, or alterations in the microbiome, through environmental changes infection, diet or lifestyle , may disrupt the symbiotic relationship and promote disease. Increasing evidence indicates a key role for bacterial microbiota in carcinogenesis 6 , 7 ,

PDF | The collection of microbes that live in and on the human body - the human microbiome - can impact on cancer initiation, progression, and.


Donna D.

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Ezechiele M.

Review ARticle | FOCUS NATurE MEdiciNE. Table 1 | Selected clinical trials modulating the gut microbiome in cancer therapy. NCT number.


Maricruz C.

Correspondence to: James Kinross.


Campbell G.

There are many risk factors associated with breast cancer BC such as the familial history of BC, using hormone replacement therapy, obesity, personal habits, and other clinical factors; however, not all BC cases are attributed to these risk factors.


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