Chapter 6 Motor Control And Learning Foundations Pdf
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- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 6 Learning
- Motor Learning and Control: Concepts and Applications
- Fine motor
- Chapter 4 Contemporary Issues and Theories of Motor Control, Motor Learning, and Neuroplasticity
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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Psychology Chapter 6 Learning
Question 1. What is learning? What are its distinguishing features? Question 2. How does classical conditioning demonstrate learning by association? Question 3. Define operant conditioning. Determinants of operant conditioning : 1. Question 4. A good role model is very important for a growing up child. Discuss the kind of learning that supports it.
This learning is also called social learning because we human beings learn many simple and complex social skills through observations. Characteristics of observational learning. Question 5. Explain the procedures for studying verbal learning. Procedures for studying verbal learning are:.
This method is used to study how participants organize words for storage in memory. Studies also indicate that the items placed in the beginning or end of the lists are easier to recall than those placed in the middle which are more difficult to recall.
Question 6. What is a skill? What are the stages through which skill learning develops? Skill consists of a chain of perceptual motor responses or as a sequence of S-R associations, e. According to Fitts skill learning develops through three stages:. Question 7. How can you distinguish between generalisation and discrimination?
Question 8. How does transfer of learning takes place? Thus, learning to play tennis may introduce a range of coordination and racket skills that would then transfer to similar games such as squash. Question 9.
Why is motivation a prerequisite for learning? Question What does the notion of preparedness for learning mean? Explain the different forms of cognitive learning. How can we identify students with learning disabilities? We can identify students with learning disabilities from many symptoms. These symptoms are following:.
Changes due to maturation or growth are not learning. Sometimes a single experience can lead to learning. Such an experience, makes the child learn to be careful in handling the matchbox in future. Before it can be called learning, the change must be relatively permanent, it must last for a fairly long time. Learning must be distinguished from the behavioural changes that are neither permanent nor learnt. Learning is a change in behaviour, for better or worse. Learning follows a sequence. Answer: Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to associate stimulus.
Conditioning is the simplest form of learning. Classical conditioning was first explained in Pavlovs experiments in which a dog was kept on a harness with a tube attached to the dogs jaw on one end, a measuring jar on the other end. The dogs was kept hungry in the course of experiments, every time the dogs was given food a bell was rung before it, slowly the dog become conditioned to believe that the ringing bell meant that food was coming. So, he began salivating at the sound at the bell.
The dog continued to salivate even when food was not given after the bell. Hence, salivation became a conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus. Various forms of classical conditioning are: Unconditioned stimulus US : This stimulus consistently evoked a response or is reliably followed by one or it has potential capacity to evoke a natural response. Conditioned stimulus CS : It is also known as a neutral stimulus because except for an altering or intentional response, the first few times it is presented, it does not evoke a specific response.
Any stimuli which lacks natural capacity to evoke natural response but developes this capacity with consistent pairing with US. For example bell. Unconditioned Response UR : The response that reliably follows the unconditioned stimulus is known as the unconditioned response, e. Saliva due to food. This response is what is learned in classical conditioning, e. Saliva s a response to the bell. The basic experimental arrangements of these procedures are as follows: Simultaneous Conditioning: When the CS and US are presented together.
It is effective to acquire CR but requires greater number of trials. The CS ends before the end of the US. It is most effective way of acquiring CR. It is effective but requires greater number of trials. It is least effective way to acquire CR. Type of unconditioned stimuli: The unconditioned stimuli used in studies of classical conditioning are of two types: Appetitive e. Noise, bitter taste etc.
Intensity of conditioned stimuli: This influences the course of both appetitive and aversive classical conditioning. More intense conditioned stimuli are more effective in accelerating the acquisition of conditioned responses, e. Reinforcers A reinforcer is defined as any stimulus or event which increases the probability of the occurrence of a desired response. The type — positive or negative, frequency, quality and schedule or reinforcer are determinants of operant conditioning.
Type of reinforcement: Positive reinforcement involves stimuli that have pleasant consequences. They strengthen and maintain the responses that have caused them to occur. Negative reinforcer involve unpleasant and painful stimuli. Responses that lead organisms to get rid of painful stimuli or avoid and escape from them provide negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement leads to learning of avoidance and escape responses. Amount of reinforcement i.
Quality of reinforcement i. Bread of inferior quality as compared with pieces of cake have different reinforcing value. Schedule of reinforcement: This refers to the arrangement of the delivery of reinforcement during trials. When a desired response is reinforcement every time it occurs we call it continuous reinforcement. When according to schedule responses are sometimes reinforced, sometimes not it is known as partial reinforcement and has been found to produce greater resistance to extinction.
Delayed reinforcement: It is found that delay in the delivery of reinforcement leads to poorer level of performance. Characteristics of observational learning Individualsleam social behaviour of person of status, respect and behave similarly when put in specific social situation e. In games, children quite often use. For such learning only those persons are observed who are considered to be as role models.
Social behaviours are learned by observation. Personality characteristics, habits are developed through observational learning. Concept of modeling According to social learning much of what human beings learn through direct experience can be learned through watching someone.
It is because of modeling. He showed a 5 minute film to children. The film showed numerous dolls including bobo dolls in a play room. The film had three versions: 1st group of children see a boy being punished for his aggressive behaviour while playing. It was found that those children who displayed aggressive behaviour being rewarded were most Aggressive, those who had seen aggressive model being punished were least aggressive. When the list of paired-associates is prepared, the first word of the pair is used as the stimulus and the second word as the response.
The first members of the pairs stimulus term are nonsense syllables consonant-vowel-consonant , and the second are English nouns response term. After that a learning trial begins. Trials continue until the participant gives all the response words without a single error. Serial learning: First, lists of verbal items, i. In serial learning the participant is presented the entire list and is required to produce the items in the same serial order as in the list.
Motor Learning and Control: Concepts and Applications
Understanding and clearly stating what your program is trying to accomplish serves as a foundation for a successful assessment plan. University of Central Florida, , p. Fresno State University n. Learning objectives are brief, clear statements of learning outcomes of instruction that are related to and flow from the program goals. While goals express intended outcomes in broad, global language, learning objectives use precise terms that focus on the students, rather than the curriculum.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Concept: Touch, proprioception, and vision are important sensory components of motor control. Describe the sensory receptors in the skin that provide tactile sensory information to the central nervous system.
Fine motor refers to the group of skills involved in the ability to manipulate smaller objects with the hands and fingers, for example, grasping, holding and pinching. Fine motor skills are distinct from gross motor skills which involve the development of larger muscle groups needed for movements such as kicking, running and jumping. Fine motor skills are necessary for many aspects of self-care as children, for example: putting on shoes, feeding themselves, cleaning their own teeth.
Hum Mov Sci —, Phys Ther —, Physiol Rev —, Brain —,
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Chapter 4 Contemporary Issues and Theories of Motor Control, Motor Learning, and Neuroplasticity
Парк был пуст. - Фильтр Х-одиннадцать уничтожен, - сообщил техник. - У этого парня зверский аппетит. Смит начал говорить.
Он, конечно, видел старинную мавританскую башню, но взбираться на нее не. - Алькасар. Беккер снова кивнул, вспомнив ночь, когда слушал гитару Пако де Лючии - фламенко под звездами в крепости XV века.
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Такой поиск, по существу, представляет собой команду компьютеру просмотреть все строки знаков на жестком диске, сравнить их с данными громадного по объему словаря и пометить те из них, которые кажутся бессмысленными или произвольными. Это сложнейшая работа, заключающаяся в постоянном отсеивании лишнего, но она вполне выполнима. Сьюзан понимала, что, по всей логике, именно ей предстояло решить эту задачу. Она вздохнула, надеясь, что ей не придется раскаиваться в том, чем она собиралась заняться. - Если все пойдет хорошо, то результат будет примерно через полчаса. - Тогда за дело, - сказал Стратмор, положил ей на плечо руку и повел в темноте в направлении Третьего узла. Над их головами куполом раскинулось усыпанное звездами небо.
Меня зовут сеньор Ролдан. Буду рад вам помочь. У нас две рыжеволосые. Обе хорошенькие. Сердце Беккера подпрыгнуло. - Очень хорошенькие? - повторил он с нарочитым немецким акцентом. - Рыженькие.
Да будет тебе, Мидж. - Бринкерхофф посмотрел на нее осуждающе. - Дай парню передохнуть. Ни для кого не было секретом, что Мидж Милкен недолюбливала Тревора Стратмора. Стратмор придумал хитроумный ход, чтобы приспособить Попрыгунчика к нуждам агентства, но его схватили за руку. Несмотря ни на что, АН Б это стоило больших денег.
Дрожащей рукой он дал команду вывести на экран последнее сообщение.
Возвращение домой оказалось долгим и слишком утомительным. Последний месяц был для Лиланда Фонтейна временем больших ожиданий: в агентстве происходило нечто такое, что могло изменить ход истории, и, как это ни странно директор Фонтейн узнал об этом лишь случайно. Три месяца назад до Фонтейна дошли слухи о том, что от Стратмора уходит жена.
Последний щит угрожающе таял. Сьюзан и Соши занялись поисками во Всемирной паутине.
Глядя, как он шелестит деньгами, Меган вскрикнула и изменилась в лице, по-видимому ложно истолковав его намерения. Она испуганно посмотрела на вращающуюся дверь… как бы прикидывая расстояние. До выхода было метров тридцать.