Air Pollution Cause And Effect Pdf
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Jump to navigation. Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air that are detrimental to human health and the planet as a whole.
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- Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review
- Air Pollution: Everything You Need to Know
Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings , or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, such as gases such as ammonia , carbon monoxide , sulfur dioxide , nitrous oxides , methane and chlorofluorocarbons , particulates both organic and inorganic , and biological molecules. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment.
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The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2. Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can have direct toxic effects, or indirectly by changing soil pH followed by solubilization of toxic salts of metals like aluminum.
The particulate matters have a negative mechanical effect. They cover the leaf blade reducing light penetration and blocking the opening of stomata. These impediments influence strongly the process of photosynthesis which rate declines sharply. Also the leaves of the trees have an important role in retention of the particulate matters; they are mostly affected when the wet and dry atmospheric deposition increase.
The vegetation plays an important positive role in atmospheric purification and air pollutants reduction. The primary producers represented by plants are an important component in biogeochemical cycles.
The vegetation made exchanges with a part of the atmospheric gases by photosynthesis, respiration processes, and the final stage of litter decomposition which mineralization. The plants play an important role in reducing atmospheric CO 2 content, by photosynthesis. This reduction of atmospheric CO 2 content has an important role in reducing of greenhouse gases, participating in reducing greenhouse effect and its consequences on climatic changes.
The carbon stored in plants is the result of balance between carbon fixed by photosynthesis and carbon released in the atmosphere by respiration. As the structure of vegetation is more complex, the carbon stock in plants biomass is higher and the period of storage is longer. The most efficient type of vegetation in storing carbon in terms of carbon stored in plants alive is the temperate-continental forest; and in terms of carbon stored in dead organic matter are peat lands.
Trees have also been planted to reduce the intensity of ionizing radiation and noise in different urban and industrial areas. The existence of vegetation in an area creates a microclimate where the temperature differentials between day and night are buffered.
This prevents the occurrence of warmer temperatures which stimulate the production of volatile pollutants into the atmosphere. Environmental pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute short-term or chronic long-term detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life. Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods.
Air pollution is the process which the substances and the energy forms are not present in normal atmospheric composition reach the atmosphere, or are present but in much lower concentrations. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.
More than 3, substances that are not part of the atmospheric composition, falling in the atmosphere can be considered air pollutants.
Some substances that are normally present in the atmosphere in a certain concentration can be considerate pollutants because their concentration is much higher than usual concentration.
Also certain substances that are normally present in certain layers of the atmosphere e. Some gases, such as oxides of nitrogen may have beneficial effect on vegetation, after hydration may affect the leaf fertilizer.
The air pollutants factors can be chemical chemicals , mechanics particles in suspension physical ionizing radiation and acoustic noise. Pollutants describe a global circuit; they are produced by different sources, are transported and transformed into atmosphere, some of them being removed, another part is reaching the earth having different effects on different biocoenosis of ecosystems fig.
An analysis done at the global level revealed a diversification of pollutants agents and sources of air pollution. This diversification and increasing concentrations are in strict correlation with industrialization and the increasing of amounts use as fossil energy non-renewable sources. At the beginning, the pollution has been felt in urban areas and the forms of relief that favored the accumulation of pollutants and long stay depressions, closed valleys, etc. Currently, air pollution has become a larger area, sometimes to disperse across multiple continents.
Air pollution can be analyzed on three spatial scales: global pollution, regional pollution and local pollutants. The global pollution is the result of cumulative effects of various sources, located on the entire surface of the globe, manifested by global effects: the stratospheric ozone depletion; greenhouse effect - emission of greenhouse gases CO 2 , methane, CFCs, etc. The regional pollution is in part the result of local air pollution--including that produced by individual sources, such as automobiles - that has spread out to encompass areas of many thousands of square kilometers.
Meteorological conditions and landforms can greatly influence air-pollution concentrations at any given place, especially locally and regionally. For example, cities located in bowls or valleys over which atmospheric inversions form and act as imperfect lids are especially likely to suffer from incidences of severe smog.
Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen carried long distances by the atmosphere and then precipitated in solution as acid rain, can cause serious damage to vegetation, waterways, and buildings. The local pollutants smog can be loosely defined as a multi-source, widespread air pollution that occurs in the air of cities.
Smog, a contraction of the words smoke and fog, has been caused throughout recorded history by water condensing on smoke particles, usually from burning coal. Air pollution comes from natural and anthropic sources; these sources generate pollutants with different effects at global level or on individuals of plants and animals tab.
Natural processes that affect air quality include volcanoes, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates. Wildfires produce smoke and carbon monoxide. Cattle and other animals emit methane as part of their digestive process. Even pine trees emit volatile organic compounds VOCs. Many forms of air pollution are human-made.
Industrial plants, power plants and vehicles with internal combustion engines produce nitrogen oxides, VOCs, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulates. In most mega-cities, cars are the main source of these pollutants. Stoves, incinerators, and farmers burning their crop waste produce carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, as well as particulates.
Other human-made sources include aerosol sprays and leaky refrigerators, as well as fumes from paint, varnish, and other solvents. Winds and weather play an important part in transport of pollution locally,. The major anthropic sources of air pollution are:. The air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. Sulphur dioxide SO2 is the most important and common air pollutant produced in huge amounts in combustion of coal and other fuels in industrial and domestic use.
It is also produced during smelting of sulphide ores. Sulphur dioxide concentrations in air have decreased in the past two decades, mainly because we use more non-sulphur-containing fuels for the generation of energy. Sulphur dioxide is a stinging gas and as a result it can cause breathing problems with humans.
In moist environments, sulphur dioxide may be transferred to sulphuric acid. This acid causes acidification and winter smog. Nitrogen oxides NOx and nitrous oxide N2O Using catalysers in car exhausts can prevent emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides are gasses that react with other air pollutants when they are present in air. For example, nitrogen oxides play an important rolein the formation of ozone in the lower atmosphere, and in acidification and eutrophication processes.
They can deeply penetrate the lungs and damage human lung functions. Chief sources of fluoride pollutants are brickworks, aluminium factories, glassworks, steelworks, ceramic factories, phosphate fertilizer plants and uranium smelters. Some fluorine pollution also occurs during combustion of coal. Most injurious fluoride pollutant is gaseous hydrogen fluoride HF. Fluoride is released into the air in large quantities by aluminum reduction plants, phosphate processors, steel mills, coal burning operations, brick and tile manufacturers, and various less significant sources[ 1 ].
It can cause adverse effects when ingested by domestic animals or absorbed by plants. There are also reports that fluoride air pollution can adversely affect human health, though these are less well documented than those concerning sensitive animals and plants. Fluorides are released into the air in both a gaseous state as hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetra-fluoride and in solid particles.
The particles fall on, and the gases are absorbed by, vegetation near the polluting industry. If this vegetation includes forage crops which are fed to cattle, sheep, horses, or pigs, serious problems may ensue, since these animals, particularly the cattle are vulnerable to fluoride [ 2 ]. In fact, according to the U. Ninety-six percent of the ingested fluoride that accumulates in the bodies of animals is incorporated into the crystal structure of bone and tooth mineral [ 3 ], [ 4 ]. When fluoride is ingested with food or water, most of that which is not deposited in the bones, teeth, and other calcified tissue is excreted in the urine within hours of ingestion [ 5 ].
Thus it is not surprising that fluoride mainly affects the bones and teeth. Teeth are more markedly affected by ingested fluoride than are bones, but their high sensitivity is limited to the period of their formation.
Thus a cow that has not been exposed to excessive fluoride before the age of two and one-half to three years will not develop the severe dental lesions which would occur in the same animal exposed at a younger age [ 6 ]. The developing tooth exposed to small amounts of fluoride may experience color variations "mottling" that have little or no effect on the animal's ability to eat.
Higher levels of fluoride result in more serious dental abnormalities, ranging from small, brittle, chalky areas on the tooth surface to pitting of enamel and easily eroded teeth [ 2 ].
Even more serious effects, including severe pain and the wearing down of the tooth right to the gum, can prevent the cattle from drinking cold water or eating. Localized or generalized enlargement of certain bones in the legs metacarpals and metatarsals and the lower jaw mandible of cattle are common symptoms of excessive fluoride ingestion [ 7 ].
As highly abnormal bone tissue replaces normal bone, [ 8 ] overall enlargement occurs, and the normally smooth bone surfaces take on a chalky, white, irregular appearance [ 2 ]. Hard ground can cause fluorotic hoof pedal bones to fracture, resulting in severe lameness [ 6 ].
Cattle with advanced fluorosis may also be crippled by mineralization of ligaments, tendons, and the structures surrounding the joints [ 9 ]. Enlargement of the joints themselves may also contribute to lameness.
Chlorine Cl2 Although chlorine concentrations change very rapidly in the atmosphere due to atmospheric chemistry and light rain can remove all the chlorine from the air in a very short time, chlorine injury can occur to plants near the source of pollution.
The impact of chlorine pollution increases in bright sunlight and decreases in drought and low temperature. Many particulate and gaseous fluorides are produced when ores containing fluorine are processed and used in industries. Hydrogen chloride HCl HCl gas is released in large quantities in combustion of PVC and all chlorinated hydrocarbon material in large fires or incinerators.
The HCl gas is very hygroscopic and quickly changes to hydrochloric acid by reacting with atmospheric moisture and forms aerosol droplets. Ammonia NH3 Continuous releases of ammonia from the sources are rarely high enough to cause acute injury but occasional high release or spillage may cause ammonia pollution. High concentrations of ammonia are sometimes found around intensive farm units e.
Extent of injury reduces rapidly with increase in distance form the source. Under certain conditions the ammonia may remain as a cloud above ground level causing more injury to trees than to the ground flora. Injury symptoms may take up to 9 days to develop.
In most plant species, recovery may occur in about 2 weeks after exposure is stopped. Ammonia forms during agricultural activities. The reduction in emissions within the agricultural sector is primarily due to a reduction in livestock numbers especially cattle since , changes in the handling and management of organic manures and from the decreased use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review
The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2. Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can have direct toxic effects, or indirectly by changing soil pH followed by solubilization of toxic salts of metals like aluminum. The particulate matters have a negative mechanical effect. They cover the leaf blade reducing light penetration and blocking the opening of stomata. These impediments influence strongly the process of photosynthesis which rate declines sharply.
One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans.
Air pollution threatens the health of humans and other living beings in our planet. It creates smog and acid rain, causes cancer and respiratory.
Air Pollution: Everything You Need to Know
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Carbon monoxide CO —a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and toxic air pollutant—is produced in the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, oil, coal, and wood. The largest anthropogenic source of CO in the United States is vehicle emissions. Breathing the high concentrations of CO typical of a polluted environment leads to reduced oxygen O 2 transport by hemoglobin and has health effects that include headaches, increased risk of chest pain for persons with heart disease, and impaired reaction timing.
Air pollution is one such form that refers to the contamination of the air, irrespective of indoors or outside. A physical, biological or chemical alteration to the air in the atmosphere can be termed as pollution. Read here more about 40 facts of air pollution. Another way of looking at air pollution could be any substance that holds the potential to hinder the atmosphere or the well being of the living beings surviving in it. The sustainment of all things living is due to a combination of gases that collectively form the atmosphere; the imbalance caused by the increase or decrease in the percentage of these gases can be harmful to survival.
Below is an introduction to the principal pollutants produced by industrial, domestic and traffic sources: View a glossary for terms used in air pollution.
А ты? - спросил Беккер. - Что предпочитаешь. - У меня черный пояс по дзюдо.
Он слышал приятный голос сеньора Ролдана из агентства сопровождения Белена. У нас только две рыжеволосые… Две рыжеволосые, Иммакулада и Росио… Росио… Росио… Беккер остановился как вкопанный. А еще считаюсь лингвистом. Он не мог понять, как до него не дошло. Росио - одно из самых популярных женских имен в Испании.
При этом внезапное отключение электроснабжения не прерывало работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА и его фреоновой системы охлаждения. Если бы этого не было, температура от трех миллионов работающих процессоров поднялась бы до недопустимого уровня - скорее всего силиконовые чипы воспламенились бы и расплавились. Поэтому такая перспектива даже не обсуждалась.