Human Health And Disease Neet Notes Pdf
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- Human Health and Disease class 12 Notes Biology
- CBSE Class 12 Biology Revision Notes Chapter 8 - Human Health and Disease
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Diseases Any conditions which interferes with the normal functioning of the body and impairs the body is called disease. Types of diseases On the basis of their period of their occurrence. Congenital disease These are inborn diseases which are present from birth and generally inherited. Example Disease caused by gene mutation colour blindness and chromosomal mutation Down Syndrome. Acquired diseases These occur only after birth and are non- inherited.
Depending upon the causative agent, communicable disease are of following types: Bacterial Diseases: Typhoid Pneumonia, Tuberculosis etc. Protozoan Diseases: Malaria, amoebiasis, Kala azar, sleeping sickness etc.
Helminths Diseases: Ascariasis, Elephantiasis, Prichinosis etc. STDs, smallpox, chicken pox etc. Non-contagious diseases: Indirect contact These communicable diseases can spread from healthy people to infected people with food, air or water.
Typhoid, Cholera or by microorganisms enters through host eg. Non-communicable Diseases: These do not spread from an infected person to a healthy person.
These are of 4 types. Cardiovascular Arthritis Cancerous diseases Allergies- Asthma, Hay fever Pathogen These are such microorganisms like bacteria, viruses and fungi which could cause disease in humans.
Means of Spread: Direct transmission: direct contact with an infected person STDs , droplet infection common cold , contact with soil tetanus , animal bite rabies and transplacental transmission syphilis.
Indirect transmission: Vector borne diseases eg. Prevention of diseases Prophylaxis : There are 3 limitations of the treatment approach of infectious diseases.
Body functions may never recover completely. Patient is bed- ridden for some time depending on the severity of disease.
Infected people act as the source of spread of disease to even healthy person. So, it is right to say that "Prevention is better than cure". There are 2 ways of Prophylactic measures: General prophylactic measure: Avoid overcrowding and providing hygienic living conditions.
Providing safe drinking water. Proper sanitation of human foetus. Specific prophylactic measures: Vaccination and immunization. Principle of Treatment: There are two ways of treatment of infections diseases: Symptom directed treatment is directed to reduce the effect of diseases which are due to inflammation of certain body tissues. Pathogen directed treatment is directed to kill the microbes using certain chemical contibioties.
Symptoms: Ulceration, acute diarrhoea, abdominal pain, stools with excess mucus and blood clot. Aureomycin and most effective metronidazole.
Site of effect: Pathogen secretes cytolysin enzymes which damage intestinal mucosa. Malaria: Causative agent: Plasmodium- P. Epidemiology: Oral contact and by vector like female anopheles mosquito.
Schizogony Gamogony Sporogony Schizogony: It is the asexual phase of multiplication of parasites in the man. The sporozoites enter into the blood of man along with the drop of saliva, when a female anopheles bites him. Some of the crypto merozoites enter into the fresh liver cells and repeat the process. Erythrocytic: The crypto merozoites enter the erythrocytes and feed on their haemoglobin, grow and undergo multiple fission to form merozoites.
The haeme of the haemoglobin is converted into a toxic substance called haemozoin which is responsible for material attack. Gamogony: It is the phase of sexual reproduction.
In it merozoites enter into fresh RBC and form two types of gametocytes, micro and macro. These gametocytes are sucked by female anopheles. In the stomach of anopheles, gametocytes form 2 types of gametes — sperm and ova. Fertilization occurs in the stomach of the mosquito and zygote is formed.
Sporogony It is the phase of asexual reproduction. Oocyst ruptures and sporozoites are released. Most of the sporozoites enter the salivary gland and wait to be injected into another man. Some Important Helminth Diseases Ascariasis: Caused by: Helminthes; Ascaris lumbricoides Symptoms: internal bleeding, blockage of intestinal passage, anaemia, muscular pain. Epidemiology: contaminated vegetables, fruits, soil etc.
Control prophylaxis : Mixture of oil of chenopodium and tetrachloroethylene. Filariasis Elephantiasis Caused by: Wuchereria bancrofti and Wuchereria malayi Symptoms: Normally caused inflammation of organs, affects the lymph vessels of lower limbs, genital organs are also affected resulting in gross deformities.
Epidemiology: female culex mosquito is the vector. Control: Anti-helminth drugs like Hetrazin and Diethylcarbamazine. Epidemiology: from soil or fomite borne or direct contact. Symptoms: dry and scaly lesions on skin, nails, scalp and itching. The study of immunity is called immunology; while the infected person with no disease is known as immune.
Immune system forms the third line of defense. Any foreign substance which when enters the body, is capable of stimulating an immune response is called an antigen. The protective chemicals produced by the body in response to antigens are known as antibodies. Antibodies are a class of bodies called immunoglobulins. Immunity is of two types: a Innate immunity b Acquired immunity Innate Immunity It is a non-specific type of defense that is present at the time of birth.
This is accomplished by providing different types of barriers to the entry of the foreign antigens into our body. It consists of following barriers: Physical barriers: They include skin and mucus coated epithelium of the respiratory tract, gastro- intestinal and urino-genital tract where the mucus helps in trapping microbes entering our body.
Physiological barrier: They include Acidity of stomach Lysozyme in saliva Tear from eyes All prevent microbial growth. Cellular barrier: They include the following specialized cells, which phagocytose and destroy the microbes. Natural killer lymphocytes NTC cells Neutrophils Monocytes Macrophages Cytokine barrier: Interferons produced by viral infected cells protect the non- infected cells from viral infections.
Acquired immunity Adaptive Immunity Acquired immunity refers to the immunity, a person acquires after birth; either by contacting the disease or by vaccination. It is pathogen specific and is present only in vertebrates. It has the following characters: Specificity It has the ability to distinguish many different foreign molecules. Memory: When the immune system encounters a pathogen for the first time, it develops an immune response by which a pathogen is eliminated primary response.
It also retains some memory cells which evoke a heightened immune response in further encounters secondary response. The antibodies produced by B- lymphocytes in response to the antigens are collectively called immunoglobulins and are of various types i. Each antibody consists of four polypeptide chains. Two of the polypeptide chains are called heavy chains H while the other two are short and are called light chains L , hence an antibody is represented as H 2 L 2.
Cell- mediated immunity: It is mediated by T- lymphocytes. Helper T-cells which activate the specific B-cells to produce antibodies. Acquired immunity can also be classified into two types: Active Passive Vaccination and Immunisation The principle of vaccination and immunisation is based on the property called memory of the immune system.
This type of immunization is called active immunization. If a quick immune is needed as in tetanus infection, preformed antibodies or antitoxin injected into the patient. This type of immunization is called passive immunisation.
Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the production of antigenic polypeptides of pathogens in other microbes like yeast and bacteria. Hepatitis-B vaccine is produced using yeast cells. Allergy: Hypersensitivity : Allergy can be defined as the hyper- sensitive reaction of the immune system of a person to some foreign substances called allergen which either comes in contact with or enters the body. The antibodies produced in response to allergens are IgE type. These symptoms are produced due to release of histamine and serotonin from the mast cells.
Drugs like anti- histamine, adrenaline and steroids quickly reduce the symptoms of allergy. Immune System The main function of the immune system is to recognize the foreign molecules, respond to them and keep a memory of them. Example: Bone Marrow and Thymus. Secondary Lymphoid organ: Secondary lymphoid organs are those where the lymphocytes interact with the antigen and proliferate to form clone effector cells and memory cells.
Example: Spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix and peyer's patches of the small intestine. Bone Marrow provides the micro- environment for the development and maturation of B- lymphocytes. Thymus: It is located beneath the chest bone near the heart. This grand keeps reducing in size with age. It provides the micro- environment for the development and maturation of T- lymphocytes.
Spleen: It mainly contains lymphocytes and phagocytes. It acts as a filter of blood. It is also a reservoir of erythrocytes. Lymph nodes: They are small solid structures found at different points along the lymphatic system.
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Get Started. Hey, I'm Rajan. I'm determined to make your exam score grow. Lets start the free course. Position yourself for success with a comprehensive curriculum and guidance from seasoned mentors. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity W. O -
Our aim is to help students learn subjects like physics, maths and science for students in school , college and those preparing for competitive exams. All right reserved. All material given in this website is a property of physicscatalyst. Diseases Any conditions which interferes with the normal functioning of the body and impairs the body is called disease. Types of diseases On the basis of their period of their occurrence. Congenital disease These are inborn diseases which are present from birth and generally inherited. Example Disease caused by gene mutation colour blindness and chromosomal mutation Down Syndrome.
Further, they are all designed with the latest academic year subject material so that any difference in the syllabus is accounted for as well. Together, students will be prepared to answer every type of question like subjective and objective and aim for the best in their last year of school. These main subjects can be very complicated for students and the revision notes for every chapter will allow them to have an expert studying pattern with which they can achieve so much better and also enjoy studying the subject. With the help of revision notes students can revise the syllabus in a concise manner. Short keynotes for Class 12 also contain colour diagrams. Because of colour diagrams, it becomes very simple to understand the concept applied while showing and explaining the topics.
Human Health and Disease class 12 Notes Biology
Register Now. Hey there! We receieved your request. Unlike the gene-and chromosome-induced congenital defects, environmentally caused abnormalities are not transmitted to the children. They are further of two types: communicable and non-communicable.
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CBSE Class 12 Biology Revision Notes Chapter 8 - Human Health and Disease
Download revision notes for Human Health and Disease class 12 Notes and score high in exams. These are the Human Health and Disease class 12 Notes prepared by team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter 8 in minutes.
Important notes are also helpful for revision when you have less time and have to study many topics. It has all important formulae and concepts you can glance at and grasp everything in one go. Here are complete Human Health and Disease important notes and summary. If you are preparing for Joint Entrance Examination or National Eligibility cum Entrance Test, then you need to study all topics in their syllabus. Here are important revision notes of Biology, important revision notes of Biology, important revision notes of biology.
Class 12 Biology Human Health and Disease notes are available in an easy and free downloadable version on the Vedantu website, making sure that they are easily accessible by all the Class 12 students for the exam preparations. The PDF version of Class 12 Chapter 8 Biology notes is also accessible on any device, and thus the students get the best compilation for the revisions during the stressful examination times. CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 8 notes PDF helps the students build a stronger conceptual knowledge about the topics of the subject, and thus understand how to answer various questions in the examinations. Every Biology student, seeking to pursue medicals in their career, must have the necessary knowledge about the common diseases in humans, and the reactions of different medicines for their treatment. The notes of Chapter 8 Biology, Class 12, contain the essential concepts, such as:. Common diseases in Human beings.
Human Health and Disease - Important notes for NEET Biology. Get access to the complete set of notes for free. Highlighted points to readily grasp and glance.
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Human Health and Disease Class 12 Notes offer students with a simple way to study or revise for the chapter since it is prepared by our panel of qualified teachers strictly according to the NCERT Syllabus. This not only reduces the pressure on the students but also, offer them a simple way to study or revise the chapter. Health can be defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. Health is affected by three factors- Genetic disorders- disorders which the child inherits from parents from birth. Infections- caused due to pathogens. Life style- includes the habits that we have or lack such as intake of food and water, rest and exercise which we give to our body etc.
В течение двух часов Беккер переводил бесконечный поток китайских иероглифов. Но каждый раз, когда он предлагал перевод, дешифровщики в отчаянии качали головами. Очевидно, получалась бессмыслица. Желая помочь, Беккер обратил их внимание на то, что все показанные ему иероглифы объединяет нечто общее - они одновременно являются и иероглифами кандзи. В комнате тут же стало тихо. Старший дешифровщик, нескладный тип по имени Морант, не выпускавший сигареты изо рта, недоверчиво уставился на Беккера.
Но, директор, ведь это… - Риск, - прервал его Фонтейн. - Однако мы можем выиграть. - Он взял у Джаббы мобильный телефон и нажал несколько кнопок. - Мидж, - сказал. - Говорит Лиланд Фонтейн.
Выйдя на открытое место и бросив взгляд на корчащегося на земле Танкадо, он задвигал пальцами, словно исполнял ими какой-то причудливый танец над коробочкой, которую держал в руке. - Он работает на Монокле, - пояснил Смит. - Посылает сообщение о том, что Танкадо ликвидирован. Сьюзан повернулась к Беккеру и усмехнулась: - Похоже, у этого Халохота дурная привычка сообщать об убийстве, когда жертва еще дышит.
ГЛАВА 94 Мидж Милкен в крайнем раздражении стояла возле бачка с охлажденной водой у входа в комнату заседаний. Что, черт возьми, делает Фонтейн? - Смяв в кулаке бумажный стаканчик, она с силой швырнула его в бачок для мусора. - В шифровалке творится нечто непонятное. Я чувствую .
- Дьявольщина. Джабба начал яростно отдирать каплю остывшего металла. Она отвалилась вместе с содранной кожей.
Он посмотрел на приближающуюся фигуру, затем перевел взгляд на кольцо.