Contribution Of Science And Technology In National Security Pdf In Hindi
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She started a school in her home at age 13 and wrote a geography textbook for her students, which was later adopted by the Department of Education of Puerto Rico. With commentary from Frances A.
- New Realities in Foreign Affairs: Diplomacy in the 21st Century
- National security
- What is Political Science?
- Importance of Science and Technology in National Development – Essay
Over a period of time, India has progressively and perceptibly paved way for development in the field of Science and Technology. The 21 st century in India is apparently marked as the beginning towards an advancement in terms of technology and enrichment of knowledge base in the fields of Science. At present, India holds a strong position in terms of advanced technology.
New Realities in Foreign Affairs: Diplomacy in the 21st Century
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book.
Wind, water, and animal power, with their limitations of place and capacity, were supplemented and then replaced by the steam engine, which went on to power the factories of the industrial revolution. The railroad made it possible to move things and people quickly over great distances. The telegraph and, later, the telephone carried communications across the countryside.
Electric lighting supplanted the dim glow of candles, kerosene, and gas lights. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the notion of progress was closely linked with technological development, and that linkage intensified in the following decades. The automobile and the airplane changed not only travel but the nature of our cities and towns.
Knowledge about the causes of diseases brought new treatments and preventive measures. Computers appeared, and soon the transistor made them smaller, more powerful, more accessible, and cheaper.
Today, the system by which research and development leads to new products is fundamentally different than it was in the nineteenth century. To the role of the individual inventor has been added the power of organized scientific research and technological innovation. Organized research and development, which are increasingly international in character, have greatly increased the production of new knowledge. Deeper understanding of living organisms is leading toward cures of diseases once thought.
Basic insights in materials science enable the development of structures that are lighter, stronger, and more durable than anything available before. The computer and novel modes of communication, such as optical fibers, bring new, interactive modes of work and more capable machinery. These new devices and new ways of working, in turn, speed the growth and dissemination of new knowledge. The accumulation of scientific knowledge and new technologies has transformed human life.
The rapid rate of material progress can continue, but it is not inevitable. The extent to which the products of science and technology are useful depends on the needs of society. Progress is more likely if we understand these differences. Only then can we effectively translate scientific and technical understanding into the techniques, tools, and insights that improve the quality of our lives.
Some, such as the semiconductor industry, the biotechnology industry, and parts of the chemical industry, were created and shaped almost entirely by ideas that grew out of science. The technologies at the heart of these industries were initially characterized more by promise than by real products. Semiconductors were in this stage right after the invention of the transistor; more recently, biotechnology went through. High-temperature superconductivity is a scientific discovery that shows promise of leading to new industries and is in this stage today.
As science-based industries continue to develop, they remain closely dependent on continuous inputs of new science, often produced by university researchers. These industries depend as well on the technological development of these ideas in order to grow and to widen their range of products.
At an early stage, these industries tend to be small, to move at a fast technical and competitive pace, and to have enormous potential. Biotechnology is now in this stage. In a more mature stage, a science-based industry may still be growing quickly, but it depends ess on the progress of academic scientists. The semiconductor industry, for example, moves at a fast technical pace and requires increasingly detailed knowledge of its materials and, as the individual transistors buried in its chips become ever smaller, even of new quantum phenomena.
But its scientific needs are met almost entirely by the work of semiconductor scientists and engineers working in the plants and laboratories of the semiconductor companies. Indeed, industry scientists are often the only ones with the detailed knowledge needed to make incremental improvements in the technologies.
Another example of an industry at a mature stage is the aircraft industry, where thousands of scientists and engineers are required to deal with the enormous complexities of new plane design. Investments in manufacturing tools and plants are often measured in hundreds of millions of dollars. Only major companies can act on this scale, and only they have the technological knowledge and experience needed to design these complex products.
Many of these. They do, however, require the highest levels of technological and production know-how. For industries that rely on high technology but are technically self-contained such as the semiconductor industry and industries that do not depend heavily on current science such as the automobile industry , the results of current fundamental research are generally not decisive.
Japan, which has not been a leading research power, has exhibited great strength in such industries. In these areas, productivity gains and product leadership can be attained by a number of strategies largely separate from scientific research but highly dependent on engineering, such as developing new technology in corporate laboratories, improving the development cycle to hasten the marketing of improved products, better coordination of design and manufacture, maximizing the creative capabilities of employees, and responding quickly to changes in consumer preferences.
Additional university research can help, but it will be of peripheral importance to such industries. Nor can research rescue a failing industry that has difficulties in other areas. As in the case of industry, many other factors must also be in place for the goals to be achieved, but science and technology provide many of the crucial insights and techniques that enable progress.
The following sections briefly describe some of the linkages between science and technology and several of these goals. Health Care Maintenance of health and prevention of illness are among the highest goals of our society. In health care, as in other areas, science and technology are embedded in much broader social and institutional structures.
For example, a research discovery can lead to experimental products in a very short time. Yet those products may require very long lead times to bring to market because of the need to ensure their safety and efficacy. The most visible public policy issue in health care today is cost. Other new products derived from research and development, such as complex imaging devices and expensive surgical procedures, raise costs in the short term while enhancing overall care.
Still other procedures reduce unit treatment costs, but these reductions make treatments more available and thus increase demand and total costs. The development and pricing of health care products are unusual for a number of reasons. In a normal market economy, differences in the costs of technologies are reflected in the level of use. But our current system of health care reimbursement insulates patients from the true costs. In addition, the government directly regulates many aspects of medical technology to ensure safety and control costs, further distorting market signals.
Finally, health care involves such basic human conditions as birth, disease, and ultimately death. Under such conditions, individual consumers often ignore economic considerations; yet the total cost of health care is a matter of enormous national concern. The effects of technical progress on costs depend to a large extent on the social and institutional structures surrounding the health care system.
As the nation undertakes a broad reassessment of its health care system, a central challenge is to create administra. For example, technological superiority in the hands of a well-trained military contributed greatly to the success of the Persian Gulf War. The United States will continue to rely on this strategy to retain military advantage, but the sources of new military technology are shifting.
This segment of industry has had essentially one customer, and its requirements were focused on product performance more strongly than on cost. In the s and s, the defense industry produced much technology of value to civilian industry.
But today the technological sophistication of civilian industry in many cases surpasses that of the defense industry. As a result, the military has become more dependent on civilian technologies. This trend will make improvements in national security more dependent on overall national economic performance.
A major challenge facing the military today is to maintain technological superiority in the face of declining defense budgets. Meeting this challenge will require a reexamination of the broad scientific and technological base that contributes to military needs, including research and development in government laboratories, in industry, and in universities.
Environmental Protection Over the past two decades, the United States has recognized and has made substantial progress in curbing the degradation of the environment. Nevertheless, difficult problems remain. Emissions and effluents of contaminated materials continue, waste disposal plagues urban areas, forests continue to be devastated, and biodiversity losses are growing.
At the same time, science and technology have exposed new issues of great complexity and uncertain consequences, such as global warming, acid precipitation, the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer, and the contamination of water supplies. By the middle of the twenty-first century, the human population is projected to double to around 11 billion people, and, to meet their basic needs, the global economy will need to be several times larger than it is now.
In some situations, existing technologies can be made cleaner and more efficient; in others, entirely new technologies, including energy technologies, will be needed. Almost all fields of science and technology can contribute to the reduction of environmental degradation. Biotechnology, materials science and engineering, and information technologies can enable the efficient use of raw materials and prevent pollution at the source. Reducing and preventing pollution is an important goal of the new field of industrial ecology, which, by examining industrial processes, strives to maintain sustainable technological growth.
Nevertheless, even if science and technology are not sufficient by themselves to resolve societal issues, they are necessary for progress. Industry, for example, now relies heavily on technology to raise productivity;. Although such factors as better skills among workers and new methods of organizing production will continue to contribute to economic expansion, new technologies will continue to be the major force behind the generation of new wealth.
Engineering, increasingly science-based, could not have achieved its present level of sophistication without its base of scientific knowledge. This increasing integration of science and technology also applies in reverse: technological problems now inspire important areas of science, even as science broadens the scope and capabilities of technology. Given the fact that science and technology are necessary, but not sufficient, elements of human progress, we as a nation face important questions: How great an investment in science and technology should we make to meet national needs?
How can we best measure national performance in science and technology? The committee turns to these questions next. William J. Cambridge, Mass. Annetine C. Gelijns and Ethan A. Halm, Eds. The Changing Economics of Medical Technology. Washington, D. NewThinking and American Defense Technology. During recent decades, a series of political and technological revolutions have significantly changed the context in which science and technology policy is made in the United States.
As the new millennium approaches, these broad changes have recast the framework in which the U. Representatives of the scientific and engineering communities have attempted to understand that new framework and to describe ways in which science and technology can respond to it.
Some scholars of international relations have argued that the security dilemma is the most important source of conflict between states. They hold that in the international realm, there is no legitimate monopoly of violence —that is, there is no world government—and, as a consequence, each state must take care of its own security. For this reason, the primary goal of states is to maximize their own security. However, many of the actions taken in pursuit of that goal—such as weapons procurement and the development of new military technologies—will necessarily decrease the security of other states. Decreasing the security of other states does not automatically create a dilemma, but other states will tend to follow suit if one state arms. They cannot know whether the arming state will use its increased military capabilities for an attack in the future.
Secure Sockets Layer SSL is a protocol developed by Netscape for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser. SSL is an industry standard which transmits private data securely over the Internet by encrypting it. It is used by many websites to protect the online transactions of their customers. Description: SSL functions around a cryptographic system which uses three keys t. Cross-site scripting XSS is a type of computer security vulnerability.
Publications/Documents/k4lra.org 2. Science and technology innovation plays a core role in our nation's security.
What is Political Science?
India ranks third among the most attractive investment destinations for technology transactions in the world. Dr Harsh Vardhan, Union Minister of Department of Science and Technology, has reiterated that technology is a strong priority area for the Government, and it aims to make people science centric. Modern India has had a strong focus on science and technology, realising that it is a key element for economic growth.
Importance of Science and Technology in National Development – Essay
Development at any phase is always linked with technology and technology happens when there is advancement in science. Hence science, technology and development are all proportional to each other. Image Courtesy : upload.
Skip to content. Political science focuses on the theory and practice of government and politics at the local, state, national, and international levels. We are dedicated to developing understandings of institutions, practices, and relations that constitute public life and modes of inquiry that promote citizenship. Political theory is concerned mainly with the foundations of political community and institutions. It focuses on human nature and the moral purposes of political association. To clarify these concepts, political theorists draw on enduring political writings from ancient Greece to the present and on various writings by moral philosophers. Political theory also focuses on empirical research into the way political institutions function in practice.
National security or national defence is the security and defence of a nation state , including its citizens , economy , and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally conceived as protection against military attack , national security is now widely understood to include also non-military dimensions, including the security from terrorism , minimisation of crime , economic security , energy security , environmental security , food security , cyber-security etc. Similarly, national security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states , action by violent non-state actors , by narcotic cartels , and by multinational corporations , and also the effects of natural disasters. Governments rely on a range of measures, including political , economic , and military power, as well as diplomacy , to safeguard the security of a nation-state. They may also act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change , economic inequality , political exclusion , and nuclear proliferation. The concept of national security remains ambiguous, having evolved from simpler definitions which emphasised freedom from military threat and from political coercion. Potential causes of national insecurity include actions by other states e.
The importance of modern technology in security and world affairs has never been so , URL. 79 'Draft report of National Security Advisory Board on Indian nuclear doctrine', 17 Aug.
Issues and Recommendations
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Wind, water, and animal power, with their limitations of place and capacity, were supplemented and then replaced by the steam engine, which went on to power the factories of the industrial revolution. The railroad made it possible to move things and people quickly over great distances.
Elites and elite change , Political systems , Conflict prevention , Crisis management. Modern diplomacy is currently experiencing fundamental changes at an unprecedented rate, which affect the very character of diplomacy as we know it. These changes also affect aspects of domestic and international politics that were once of no great concern to diplomacy. Ministries of Foreign Affairs, diplomats and governments in general should therefore be proactive in four areas:. Diplomats must understand the tension between individual needs and state requirements, and engage with that tension without detriment to the state.
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