Animal Diseases And Treatment Pdf In Hindi
File Name: animal diseases and treatment in hindi.zip
Anthrax disease of cattles:.
Search Titles Subjects Organizations Collage. Foot-and-mouth disease FMD is an acute and highly contagious viral disease which affects all animals with hooves such as cattle, water buffalo, goats and pigs. All ages are affected. Refer to booklet on Herbal medicine for animals.
Bovine Ephemeral Fever
The virus is one of three closely related species within the genus capripoxvirus, the other two species being Sheeppox virus and Goatpox virus. LSD was first described in Zambia in Over the next 85 years it steadily spread throughout the majority of Africa and into the Middle East. In the virus entered mainland Europe in Greece, and the Caucasus and Russia. In the virus spread further east into the Balkans, north towards Moscow, and west into Kazakhstan.
It is currently considered a rapidly emerging disease of high consequence. It is notifiable with outbreaks causing significant damage to productivity and trade. There is still a good deal of information lacking about the transmission of LSD. Evidence to date supports transmission of the virus via arthropods such as insects or ticks these are termed virus "vectors".
For example outbreaks of LSD occur during warm, wet weather while the disease usually diminishes in the cooler winter months. In addition, LSD epidemics are often characterised by new outbreaks occurring at distances over 50km from the nearest known disease focus. These characteristics strongly suggest insect-borne transmission, such as mosquitoes and ticks.
However, it is unclear which vector species are involved in transmission of LSD, and if it is a simple mechanical transmission of the virus or a more complicated biological transmission involving replication or development of the virus in the vector. Movement of infected cattle can also be a significant factor in the spread of LSD over large distances.
Other clinical signs include general malaise, ocular and nasal discharge, fever, and sudden decrease in milk production. Some cattle develop very small numbers of nodules which can be difficult to spot. Others develop innumerable nodules up to 3cm in diameter. The factors determining which cattle develop mild and which develop severe disease are unknown. Disease can be confirmed with a laboratory diagnosis, with tests available to detect the DNA of the virus or antibodies.
LSD can be confused with many diseases, including: Pseudo lumpy skin disease caused by Bovine Herpesvirus 2 , Bovine papular stomatitis Parapoxvirus , Pseudocowpox Parapoxvirus , Cowpox, cutaneous tuberculosis, Demodicosis Demodex , insect or tick bites, urticarial, photosensitisation, Papillomatosis Fibropapillomas, "warts" , Rinderpest, Dermatophilosis, Besnoitiosis, Hypoderma bovis infection and Oncocercosis.
Signs such as fever and milk drop are non-specific, and can be seen with many other diseases. Control and prevention of lumpy skin disease relies on four tactics - movement control quarantine , vaccination, slaughter campaigns and management strategies. Specific national control plans vary between countries and so advice should be sought from the relevant authorities and veterinarians.
Vaccination is the most effective means of control, and live homologous vaccines containing a Neethling-like strain of LSDV are recommended. There is no treatment for the virus, so prevention by vaccination is the most effective means of control.
Lumpy skin disease virus causes a severe disease in cattle characterised by nodules in the skin. Transmission of LSD occurs via insect vectors and vaccination is the most effective means of control. During the past five years lumpy skin disease has spread through the Middle East into southeast Europe, the Caucasus, southwest Russia and western Asia. The disease causes substantial losses in affected herds with significant economic consequences.
It also blocks access of affected countries to lucrative export markets, compounding the financial impact of a LSD outbreak. The main lesson to be learnt from the current European LSD epidemic is to be vigilant of emerging diseases. NADIS hopes that you have found the information in the article useful. Now test your knowledge by enrolling and trying the quiz. You will receive an animal health certificate for this subject if you attain the required standard.
Download PDF. Sponsor Content. Accredited by:. Qualified CPD for:. Clinical Quiz.
Foot-and-mouth disease FMD or hoof-and-mouth disease HMD is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals , including domestic and wild bovids. FMD has very severe implications for animal farming , since it is highly infectious and can be spread by infected animals comparatively easily through contact with contaminated farming equipment, vehicles, clothing, and feed, and by domestic and wild predators. Susceptible animals include cattle , water buffalo , sheep , goats , pigs ,   antelope , deer , and bison. It has also been known to infect hedgehogs and elephants ;   llamas and alpacas may develop mild symptoms, but are resistant to the disease and do not pass it on to others of the same species. Humans are only extremely rarely infected by foot-and-mouth disease virus. However, humans, particularly young children, can be affected by hand, foot, and mouth disease , which also affects cattle, sheep, and swine, and is caused by viruses unrelated to foot-and-mouth disease virus. The two diseases are often confused.
PDF | On Jul 1, , S.N. Mishra and others published Animal Diseases and Veterinary Care Systems | Find, read and treating animal diseases, (3) documentation of the translated in Hindi, printed in bilingual form, and.
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bovine ephemeral fever is an arthropod-borne viral disease of cattle and water buffalo that causes milk production losses, recumbency, and sometimes death. Diagnosis is mostly performed by PCR. Vaccine effectiveness varies.
Stomatitis is a clinical sign of many diseases in large animals. Oral trauma or contact with chemical irritants eg, horses that lick at their legs after having been blistered with caustic agents may result in transient stomatitis. Traumatic injury from the ingestion of the awns of barley, foxtail, porcupine grass, and spear grass, as well as feeding on plants infested with hairy caterpillars, also will result in stomatitis in horses and cattle. Clinical signs commonly associated with acute active stomatitis include ptyalism, dysphagia, or resistance to oral examination. Oral examination is facilitated by sedation, after which the mouth can be examined carefully with the aid of a mouth speculum and a light source.
Animal disease , an impairment of the normal state of an animal that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. Concern with diseases that afflict animals dates from the earliest human contacts with animals and is reflected in early views of religion and magic. Diseases of animals remain a concern principally because of the economic losses they cause and the possible transmission of the causative agents to humans.