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- Occupational and Environmental Health Recognizing and Preventing Disease and Injury
- Knowledge Management
- Occupational and Environmental Health Recognizing and Preventing Disease and Injury
- MARINE HEALTH, SAFETY, QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
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Occupational and Environmental Health Recognizing and Preventing Disease and Injury
Lee Schultz, G1na H. D1xon, Stephen H. Nacht, Clay E. D1Clement1, John J. Dorla, Walter A. Environmental Protection Agency. The use of trade names or commercial products does not constitute Agency endorsement or recommendation for use. These methods are not necessarily the only methods used by OTS, because the state-of-the-art 1n exposure assessment 1s changing rapidly, as 1s the availability of methods and tools.
There 1s no single correct approach to performing an exposure assessment, and the methods 1n these volumes are accordingly discussed only as options to be considered, rather than as rigid procedures. Perhaps more Important than the optional methods presented 1n these volumes 1s the general Information catalogued. These documents contain a great deal of non-chem1cal-spedf1c data which can be used for many types of exposure assessments. This Information 1s presented along with the methods 1n Individual volumes and appendices.
As a set, these volumes should be thought of as a catalog of Information useful 1n exposure assessment, and not as a "how-to" cookbook on the subject. The definition, background, and discussion on planning of exposure assessments are discussed 1n the Introductory volume of the series Volume 1.
Each subsequent volume addresses only one general exposure setting. Consult Volume 1 for guidance on the proper use and Interrelations of the various volumes and on the planning and Integration of an entire assessment.
EPA-OTS Intends to Issue periodic supplements for Volumes 2 through 9 to describe significant Improvements and updates for the existing Information, as well as adding short monographs to the series on specific areas of Interest.
Lee Schultz G1na H. D1xon Clay E. Carpenter William Christie James N. Dorla Walter A. Sources 5 2. Table Commercial Use Industries 62 Table Mixing Factor m Values for ft3 Room Figure Framework for Occupational Exposure Assessment Theoretical Settling Velocities of Fibers 69 Figure This necessity 1s based on the risk to those Involved 1n the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, and disposal of the chemical.
Occupational exposure assessments have historically been limited by a lack of complete and reliable data, resulting 1n large data gaps for some worker populations. This document presents a generalized approach to occupational exposure assessment.
It specifically deals with assessment of exposure occurring as a direct result of workplace activities; exposure to outdoor workers that results from contaminants 1n the ambient environment 1s not addressed 1n this report.
For procedures appropriate to the assessment of worker exposure to contaminants 1n the ambient environment, the analyst 1s referred to Volumes 2 and 4 of this report series, Methods for Assessing Exposure to Chemical Substances 1n the Ambient Environment Freed et al. As the figure shows, the first step 1n the analysis Involves determining which occupational settings are sources of exposure to workers. This Includes consideration of chemical manufacturing facilities those facilities where the chemical 1s produced as well as Industrial, commercial, and trade facilities that store, use, or handle the chemical or products containing the chemical.
This analysis 1s of critical Importance because 1t 1s the basis for determining the amount of chemical released to the occupational environment and for Identifying and enumerating the exposed population. Upon completion of the source determination step, 1t will be useful for the assessor to obtain relevant monitoring data.
For each source of exposure or source category , a materials balance should be developed to determine all sources of release of the chemical to the workplace environment and to estimate the level of release from each source. In addition, any chemical or physical processes that may affect the chemical once 1t Is released should be considered 1n order to determine Its potential for transport or transformation within the workplace.
The results of these two analyses, quantification of the level of chemical release and a determination of the chemical's fate within the workplace following release, provide a basis for estimating concentrations of the chemical within specified media 1n the workplace.
These estimates of contaminant concentrations can then be used 1n conjunction with data quantifying worker Inhalation rates, 1ngest1on rates, and affected skin surface area to estimate the degree of potential exposure. The worker activity analysis step 1s useful 1n determining the amount of air Inhaled, contaminant Ingested, or chemical contacted by the skin; such factors are highly dependent on both the length of time the worker spends 1n a contaminated area and the type of activity that he or she 1s performing.
Occupational exposure assessments also consider the effect of protective measures used specifically to limit or reduce worker exposure. This Information allows the assessor to adjust the exposure values to estimate the actual level of exposure Incurred by workers using such measures.
The activity analysis Identifies those categories of workers that are exposed as a result of each specific activity. This Information directly Identifies exposed worker subpopulatlons. Once Identified, each exposed subpopulatlon 1s then enumerated, or counted, to determine the number of workers experiencing exposure In each activity category. The exposed worker populations are also characterized by age and sex 1n order to provide such additional Information as susceptibility to specific toxic effects of certain classes of substances e.
Such determinations will actually be executed 1n conjunction with the calculation of exposure. Population characterization also Identifies subpopulatlons that may experience a greater risk from a given level of exposure than the population at large, because of the toxldty characteristics of the contaminants.
In such cases, the assessment process described above can be significantly streamlined, as 1s Illustrated In Figure As the name suggests, workplace monitoring measures the ambient concentration of contaminants at particular locations 1n the workplace. Personal or breathing zone monitoring provides a more direct determination of contaminant concentrations to which Individual workers are exposed than does workplace monitoring. Therefore, 1f such data are available and determined to be of acceptable quality, they can replace estimated concentrations that are based on a materials balance and fate analysis.
The analytical framework described above can be applied to assessment of exposure to existing chemicals as well as to new chemicals such as those evaluated by EPA 1n the Premanufacturlng Notice, or PMN, assessment process. For existing chemicals, monitoring data may be available, thereby allowing a more direct analysis. Monitoring data will not be available for some new chemicals. Following this Introduction, Section 2 addresses determination of sources of occupational exposure.
The acquisition, application, and limitations of monitoring data pertinent to occupational exposure assessments are discussed In Section 3. Section 4 describes the estimation of contaminant releases to the workplace and the development of a source mass balance. In Section 5, contaminant transport and transformation processes that may affect the fate of chemicals released to the occupational environment are described, and means of calculating estimating workplace contaminant concentrations resulting from estimated releases are detailed.
Section 6 deals with the Identification, enumeration, and characterization of exposed worker populations, and Section 7 addresses calculation of the level of exposure experienced by workers.
References used 1n developing this document are presented 1n Section 8, which 1s followed by two appendices. Appendix A provides Information on certain processes and Industries, Including details on the organic chemical, lubricant, and plastics manufacturing Industries. Appendix B 1s a general data source reference covering a broad range of Information sources useful 1n conducting occupational exposure assessments.
Source Information Includes the amount of the chemical produced, Its products, where and how 1t 1s produced and used, and the releases of the chemical from production, transportation, use, and disposal. In this report, the source analysis has been divided Into two separate sections. This section discusses only the amount of the chemical produced, Its products, and where and how 1t 1s produced and used. The Intention of this section 1s to serve as an organizing tool for the gathering and analysis of monitoring data Information on monitoring data 1s presented 1n Section 3.
Section 4 discusses the generation of release estimates, which are necessary to estimate concentrations 1f monitoring data are not available.
The sources of exposure to a chemical 1n the occupational environment are manufacturing, processing, trade, commercial use, transportation, and disposal. Manufacturing Includes not only modifying raw materials to produce an Intermediate or finished product but also the mining extraction of raw materials e. Processing 1s the modification of a chemical or material from manufacturing to other products; processing may Involve several Industries.
Trade 1s the distribution of products to commercial concerns or consumers. Commercial use 1s the application of chemicals or products 1n a commercial or business setting. In the occupational setting, the two most Important routes of entry of chemicals Into the body are Inhalation and chemical contact with skin dermal exposure. Although the gastrointestinal tract 1s a potential site of absorption, the direct 1ngest1on of significant amounts of chemicals 1s rare 1n occupational situations Proctor and Hughes The sources section 1n this document, therefore, emphasizes the potential sources of the toxic chemical for Inhalation and dermal exposures.
It should be noted, however, that although relatively minor 1n magnitude compared with Inhalation or dermal exposure, gastrointestinal exposure can Indirectly occur 1n occupational settings as a result of Inhalation of contaminant particles that are too large to penetrate to the alveoli 1n the lung. Such particles are removed from the respiratory system by ciliary movement of the mucous 1n which they become trapped.
This contaminated mucous 1s then either eliminated from the body via expectoration or swallowed. In the latter case, such contaminants do become a gastrointestinal exposure problem. If the toxlcologlcal properties of a given chemical differ depending on whether the chemical 1s Inhaled or Ingested, distinguishing the degree of exposure via each route 1s critical to conducting an adequate exposure assessment.
Section 7 of this report addresses means of calculating exposure to contaminants Ingested either directly or Indirectly. These categories are direct releases and Indirect releases. Direct releases are emissions that result 1n direct exposure to workers Involved 1n actlvltes that cause the release. Examples Include releases associated with such activities as maintenance, cleanup, or sampling. Indirect releases are emissions that result 1n Indirect exposure to workers, such as process vent, fugitive, and storage emissions.
For example, a worker standing near a pumping operation can be Indirectly exposed to emissions from a leaking pump seal. Characterizing worker activities 1s briefly discussed 1n this section; 1t 1s discussed 1n detail 1n Section 4. Release estimates and the characterization of the substance at the release point are also discussed 1n Section 4. The remaining two steps are discussed below 1n subsections 2. To perform each of the above steps, assessors acquire Information from the following general sources: direct measurements, review articles, encyclopedias, scientific journal articles, basic research reports, government publications, computerized bibliographic systems and other guides to the published literature, EPA offices and other federal agencies, state or International organizations, custodians of unpublished materials especially Industry contacts , and guides to research 1n progress.
The data sources applicable to the first two steps listed are discussed 1n the following sections along with guidance on how they are used. The first step of this exposure assessment method 1s to review readily accessible Information on the chemical. Some references are suggested 1n Table ; notice that these are mostly encyclopedias which provide a general overview.
Information that should be obtained 1n this step Includes the type of chemical, Its physical state at ambient conditions, the production volume, manufacturing or mining methods, and the chemical's uses. If the chemical 1s a PMN chemical, this Information should be obtained from the Premanufacturlng Notice or an analysis of surrogates. Processing, and Use Locations Geographic location Information aids 1n the Identification of applicable monitoring and population data; such site specific data are usually the best available for use In occupational exposure assessments.
Lee Schultz, G1na H. D1xon, Stephen H. Nacht, Clay E. D1Clement1, John J. Dorla, Walter A. Environmental Protection Agency.
Dedication This report is dedicated to the 11 men who lost their lives on the Deepwater Horizon rig on April 20, and to their families, in hope that this report will help minimize the chance of another such disaster ever happening again. We wish to acknowledge the many individuals and organizations, government officials and agencies alike that offered their views and insights to the Commission. We would also like to thank Chevron for performing the cement tests that proved so critical to our investigation into the Macondo well blowout. We also thank the Department of Energy, which served as our supporting agency, and all of the Department employees whose assistance was so essential to the success and functioning of the Commission. Together, these contributions greatly informed our work and led to a better report.
The ISM Code wa developed by the International Maritime Organization to provide the maritime community with an internationally recognized tandard for the afe management and operation of hip and for pollution prevention. Initially adopted a reolution A. Thee tandard, though not pecific to the marine indutry, provide ueful guidance that can be employed in marine management and the operation of hip to further enhance management ytem focued on the afe operating practice and prevention of pollution. Thee principle, where appropriate, have been marinized in order to bring them within the concept of the indutry itelf. Thee requirement are identified by an h. Alo, thi reviion of the Guide addree change made in the ISO tandard.
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Occupational and Environmental Health Recognizing and Preventing Disease and Injury
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The ISM Code wa developed by the International Maritime Organization to provide the maritime community with an internationally recognized tandard for the afe management and operation of hip and for pollution prevention. Initially adopted a reolution A. Thee tandard, though not pecific to the marine indutry, provide ueful guidance that can be employed in marine management and the operation of hip to further enhance management ytem focued on the afe operating practice and prevention of pollution. Thee principle, where appropriate, have been marinized in order to bring them within the concept of the indutry itelf.
MARINE HEALTH, SAFETY, QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
When people enter drug studies at the University of Minnesota, they're supposed to be protected by a safety net keeping watch that the vulnerable are not coerced, that standards of conduct are met and that researchers aren't tangled in conflicts that might influence their decision-making. A schizophrenic, Markingson killed himself in while enrolled in a study at the U comparing anti-psychotic drugs. Documents surfacing the past year in a lawsuit over his death have raised questions about whether the U psychiatrist running the study followed university ethical guidelines. They also raise questions about why the Institutional Review Board, the internal group charged with protecting people in university studies, didn't intervene.
У нас почти не осталось времени, - сказал Фонтейн. - Давайте ближе к сути дела. Агент Колиандер нажал несколько кнопок, и кадры стали сменяться быстрее. Люди на подиуме с нетерпением ждали, когда на экране появится их бывший сослуживец Энсей Танкадо. Ускоренное проигрывание видеозаписи придавало изображению некоторую комичность. Вот Танкадо вышел на открытое место и залюбовался открывшимся перед ним зрелищем. Он козырьком поднес руку к глазам и стал разглядывать шпили над внушительным фасадом.
Если искомый пароль содержал десять знаков, то компьютер программировался так, чтобы перебирать все комбинации от 0000000000 до 9999999999, и рано или поздно находил нужное сочетание цифр. Этот метод проб и ошибок был известен как применение грубой силы. На это уходило много времени, но математически гарантировало успех. Когда мир осознал возможности шифровки с помощью грубой силы, пароли стали все длиннее и длиннее. Компьютерное время, необходимое для их угадывания, растягивалось на месяцы и в конце концов - на годы.
Guide for Marine Health, Safety, Quality and vironmental Management Save this PDF as: a a comprehenive approach to health, afety uality, environmental and energy Veel hall normally be aeed in accordance with the uual audit freuency energy ue and conumption of the Company hore-baed and hipboard rik.
У нас есть кое-какие данные. Танкадо неоднократно публично заявлял, что у него есть партнер. Наверное, этим он надеялся помешать производителям программного обеспечения организовать нападение на него и выкрасть пароль. Он пригрозил, что в случае нечестной игры его партнер обнародует пароль, и тогда все эти фирмы сойдутся в схватке за то, что перестало быть секретом. - Умно, - сказала Сьюзан. Стратмор продолжал: - Несколько раз Танкадо публично называл имя своего партнера.
Искусственное дыхание делали санитары. - Понятия не имею. Я уже говорила, что мы ушли до их прибытия. - Вы хотите сказать - после того как стащили кольцо. - Мы его не украли, - искренне удивилась Росио. - Человек умирал, и у него было одно желание. Мы просто исполнили его последнюю волю.