high and low level programming languages pdf

High And Low Level Programming Languages Pdf

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In computer science , a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. In contrast to low-level programming languages , it may use natural language elements , be easier to use, or may automate or even hide entirely significant areas of computing systems e.

Low-level programming language

A programming language defines a set of instructions that are compiled together to perform a specific task by the CPU Central Processing Unit. Each programming language contains a unique set of keywords and syntax, which are used to create a set of instructions. Thousands of programming languages have been developed till now, but each language has its specific purpose.

These languages vary in the level of abstraction they provide from the hardware. Some programming languages provide less or no abstraction while some provide higher abstraction.

Based on the levels of abstraction, they can be classified into two categories:. The image which is given below describes the abstraction level from hardware. As we can observe from the below image that the machine language provides no abstraction, assembly language provides less abstraction whereas high-level language provides a higher level of abstraction. The low-level language is a programming language that provides no abstraction from the hardware, and it is represented in 0 or 1 forms, which are the machine instructions.

The languages that come under this category are the Machine level language and Assembly language. The machine-level language is a language that consists of a set of instructions that are in the binary form 0 or 1. As we know that computers can understand only machine instructions, which are in binary digits, i. Creating a program in a machine-level language is a very difficult task as it is not easy for the programmers to write the program in machine instructions.

It is error-prone as it is not easy to understand, and its maintenance is also very high. A machine-level language is not portable as each computer has its machine instructions, so if we write a program in one computer will no longer be valid in another computer.

The different processor architectures use different machine codes, for example, a PowerPC processor contains RISC architecture, which requires different code than intel x86 processor, which has a CISC architecture. The assembly language contains some human-readable commands such as mov, add, sub, etc.

The problems which we were facing in machine-level language are reduced to some extent by using an extended form of machine-level language known as assembly language.

Since assembly language instructions are written in English words like mov, add, sub, so it is easier to write and understand. As we know that computers can only understand the machine-level instructions, so we require a translator that converts the assembly code into machine code. The translator used for translating the code is known as an assembler. The assembly language code is not portable because the data is stored in computer registers, and the computer has to know the different sets of registers.

The assembly code is not faster than machine code because the assembly language comes above the machine language in the hierarchy, so it means that assembly language has some abstraction from the hardware while machine language has zero abstraction. The high-level language is a programming language that allows a programmer to write the programs which are independent of a particular type of computer. The high-level languages are considered as high-level because they are closer to human languages than machine-level languages.

When writing a program in a high-level language, then the whole attention needs to be paid to the logic of the problem. The following are the differences between low-level language and high-level language:. JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. Mail us on hr javatpoint. Please mail your requirement at hr javatpoint.

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Data Mining. Javatpoint Services JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. Based on the levels of abstraction, they can be classified into two categories: Low-level language High-level language The image which is given below describes the abstraction level from hardware. Low-level language The low-level language is a programming language that provides no abstraction from the hardware, and it is represented in 0 or 1 forms, which are the machine instructions.

Machine-level language The machine-level language is a language that consists of a set of instructions that are in the binary form 0 or 1. Assembly Language The assembly language contains some human-readable commands such as mov, add, sub, etc.

Differences between Machine-Level language and Assembly language The following are the differences between machine-level language and assembly language: Machine-level language Assembly language The machine-level language comes at the lowest level in the hierarchy, so it has zero abstraction level from the hardware.

The assembly language comes above the machine language means that it has less abstraction level from the hardware. The assembly language is written in simple English language, so it is easily understandable by the users. It is a machine-friendly language, i. It is a user-friendly language as this language is written in simple English words, which can be easily understood by humans.

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A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture —commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions. Generally, this refers to either machine code or assembly language. Because of the low hence the word abstraction between the language and machine language, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware". Programs written in low-level languages tend to be relatively non-portable , due to being optimized for a certain type of system architecture. Low-level languages can convert to machine code without a compiler or interpreter — second-generation programming languages use a simpler processor called an assembler — and the resulting code runs directly on the processor.

A high-level language is a programming language intended to streamline computer programming. High-level source code consists of easy-to-read structures that are later translated into a low-level language, which can only be perceived and run by a specific CPU. A high-level language is abstracted further away from the computer itself, and focuses more on programming logic rather than on basic hardware elements like memory address and register usage. High-level languages are intended to be used by a human operator or the programmer. They are designed to be closer to humans than to computers. Their programming technique and framework is easier to grasp and execute than low-level languages, and the code as a whole generally concentrates on whichever specific program is being developed. A high-level language does not entail dealing with hardware limitations when creating a program.

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Distinguishing Features Advantages and Disadvantages of PythonSome benefits of the python as a high level language is that it is closer to English than most low​.


High and Low Level Languages

Machine Language Guide Basic Program The basic template of a machine language program is shown below. Assembly language is almost certainly the most difficult kind of computer programming, but keep in mind that we're speaking in relative terms here. Machine language vs.

A programming language defines a set of instructions that are compiled together to perform a specific task by the CPU Central Processing Unit. Each programming language contains a unique set of keywords and syntax, which are used to create a set of instructions. Thousands of programming languages have been developed till now, but each language has its specific purpose. These languages vary in the level of abstraction they provide from the hardware.

Each language has a unique set of keywords words that it understands and a special syntax for organizing program instructions. High-level programming languages, while simple compared to human languages, are more complex than the languages the computer actually understands, called machine languages. Each different type of CPU has its own unique machine language.

What is a programming language?

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Differences between Low-level and High-level Languages:.

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