nordic gods and heroes padraic colum pdf

Nordic Gods And Heroes Padraic Colum Pdf

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Norse myth. A cultural history of reception

Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples , stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia , and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Germanic mythology , Norse mythology consists of tales of various deities, beings, and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, and folk tradition.

The cosmos in Norse mythology consists of Nine Worlds that flank a central sacred tree , Yggdrasil. Units of time and elements of the cosmology are personified as deities or beings. Various forms of a creation myth are recounted, where the world is created from the flesh of the primordial being Ymir , and the first two humans are Ask and Embla. There the surviving gods will meet, and the land will be fertile and green, and two humans will repopulate the world.

Norse mythology has been the subject of scholarly discourse since the 17th century, when key texts attracted the attention of the intellectual circles of Europe. By way of comparative mythology and historical linguistics , scholars have identified elements of Germanic mythology reaching as far back as Proto-Indo-European mythology.

During the modern period, the Romanticist Viking revival re-awoke an interest in the subject matter, and references to Norse mythology may now be found throughout modern popular culture. The myths have further been revived in a religious context among adherents of Germanic Neopaganism. The historical religion of the Norse people is commonly referred to as Norse mythology.

In certain literature the terms Scandinavian mythology , [1] [2] [3] North Germanic mythology [4] or Nordic mythology have been used. Norse mythology is primarily attested in dialects of Old Norse , a North Germanic language spoken by the Scandinavian people during the European Middle Ages and the ancestor of modern Scandinavian languages.

The majority of these Old Norse texts were created in Iceland , where the oral tradition stemming from the pre-Christian inhabitants of the island was collected and recorded in manuscripts. This occurred primarily in the 13th century. These texts include the Prose Edda , composed in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson , and the Poetic Edda , a collection of poems from earlier traditional material anonymously compiled in the 13th century.

The Prose Edda was composed as a prose manual for producing skaldic poetry—traditional Old Norse poetry composed by skalds. Originally composed and transmitted orally, skaldic poetry utilizes alliterative verse , kennings , and several metrical forms. The Prose Edda presents numerous examples of works by various skalds from before and after the Christianization process and also frequently refers back to the poems found in the Poetic Edda.

The Poetic Edda consists almost entirely of poems, with some prose narrative added, and this poetry— Eddic poetry—utilizes fewer kennings. In comparison to skaldic poetry, Eddic poetry is relatively unadorned.

The Prose Edda features layers of euhemerization , a process in which deities and supernatural beings are presented as having been either actual, magic-wielding human beings who have been deified in time or beings demonized by way of Christian mythology. Numerous further texts, such as the sagas , provide further information. The saga corpus consists of thousands of tales recorded in Old Norse ranging from Icelandic family histories Sagas of Icelanders to Migration period tales mentioning historic figures such as Attila the Hun legendary sagas.

Only a tiny amount of poems and tales survive of the mythical tales and poems that are presumed to have existed during the Middle Ages, Viking Age, Migration Period, and before. Numerous gods are mentioned in the source texts. The god Odin is also frequently mentioned in surviving texts. One-eyed, wolf - and raven -flanked, with spear in hand, Odin pursues knowledge throughout the worlds.

In an act of self-sacrifice, Odin is described as having hanged himself upside-down for nine days and nights on the cosmological tree Yggdrasil to gain knowledge of the runic alphabet, which he passed on to humanity, and is associated closely with death, wisdom, and poetry. Odin is portrayed as the ruler of Asgard , and leader of the Aesir. Odin's wife is the powerful goddess Frigg who can see the future but tells no one, and together they have a beloved son, Baldr.

After a series of dreams had by Baldr of his impending death, his death is engineered by Loki , and Baldr thereafter resides in Hel , a realm ruled over by an entity of the same name. Odin must share half of his share of the dead with a powerful goddess, Freyja. While the Aesir and the Vanir retain distinct identification, they came together as the result of the Aesir—Vanir War. While they receive less mention, numerous other gods and goddesses appear in the source material.

For a list of these deities, see List of Germanic deities. Various beings outside of the gods are mentioned. Elves and dwarfs are commonly mentioned and appear to be connected, but their attributes are vague and the relation between the two is ambiguous. Elves are described as radiant and beautiful, whereas dwarfs often act as earthen smiths.

These beings may either aid, deter, or take their place among the gods. While their functions and roles may overlap and differ, all are collective female beings associated with fate. In Norse cosmology , all beings live in Nine Worlds that center around the cosmological tree Yggdrasil. The gods inhabit the heavenly realm of Asgard whereas humanity inhabits Midgard , a region in the center of the cosmos.

Travel between the worlds is frequently recounted in the myths, where the gods and other beings may interact directly with humanity. The tree itself has three major roots, and at the base of one of these roots live a trio of norns , female entities associated with fate. The afterlife is a complex matter in Norse mythology. From this two humankind are foretold to repopulate the new and green earth. With the widespread publication of translations of Old Norse texts that recount the mythology of the North Germanic peoples, references to the Norse gods and heroes spread into European literary culture, especially in Scandinavia, Germany, and Britain.

During the later 20th century, references to Norse mythology became common in science fiction and fantasy literature, role-playing games , and eventually other cultural products such as comic books and Japanese animation. Traces of the religion can also be found in music and has its own genre, viking metal. Media related to Norse mythology at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Body of mythology of the North Germanic people.

For the social institutions of the Norse pagans, see Old Norse religion. For the book by Neil Gaiman, see Norse Mythology book. See also: List of Norse gods and goddesses.

Main article: Norse mythology in popular culture. See also: Germanic mythology and Germanic neopaganism. Mythology portal. Loki in Scandinavian Mythology. Murder and vengeance among the gods: Baldr in Scandinavian mythology, Edition Suomalainen tiedeakatemia. Scandinavian Mythology: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Pub. Early Germanic Literature and Culture.

Of even more importance is Snorri Sturluson , the Icelandic scholar and politician, who did our knowledge of heathen religion such good service Nordic Gods and Heroes. Courier Corporation. For hammers, see Simek , pp. Simek , pp. For Valhalla, see Lindow , pp.

For Gefjon, see Orchard , p. Translated by Faulkes, Anthony. Flowers, Stephen Lindow, John Oxford University Press. MacLeod, Mindy; Mees, Bernard Runic Amulets and Magic Objects. Boydell Press. Mallory, J. Orchard, Andy Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Puhvel, Jaan Comparative Mythology. Johns Hopkins University Press. Turville-Petre, E. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Simek, Rudolf Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Translated by Hall, Angela. Norse paganism and mythology.

Deities and other figures. Norse gods Norse giants Norse dwarfs Mythological Norse people, items and places Germanic paganism Heathenry new religious movement. Viking Age. Vinland Danelaw North Sea Empire. Viking expansion British Isles Scotland. Germanic mythology. Deities list Germanic Heroic Age heroes Sacred trees and groves. List of films Norse.

Norse mythology

Padraic Colum 8 December — 11 January was an Irish poet, novelist, dramatist, biographer, playwright, children's author and collector of folklore. He was one of the leading figures of the Irish Literary Revival. Colum was born Patrick Columb in a County Longford workhouse, where his father worked. He was the first of eight children born to Patrick and Susan Columb. Padraic and his mother and siblings remained in Ireland, having moved to live with his grandmother in County Cavan. His son attended the local national school. When Susan Columb died in , [3] the family was temporarily split up.

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Padraic Colum

Sol was the name of that Sun and Mani was the name of that Moon. But always behind Sol and Mani wolves went, a wolf behind each. The wolves caught on them at last and they devoured Sol and Mani. And then the world was in darkness and cold. But in the days when the Sun and Moon were destroyed the Gods were destroyed too — all the Gods except Baldur who had died before that time, Vidar and Vali, the sons of Odin, and Modi and Magni, the sons of Thor.

Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples , stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia , and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Germanic mythology , Norse mythology consists of tales of various deities, beings, and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, and folk tradition. The cosmos in Norse mythology consists of Nine Worlds that flank a central sacred tree , Yggdrasil. Units of time and elements of the cosmology are personified as deities or beings.

Heimdall and Little Hnossa: How All Things Came to Be

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And this story of Odysseus begins with his son, the youth who was called Telemachus. It was when Telemachus was a child of a month old that a messenger came from Agamemnon, the Great King, bidding Odysseus betake himself to the war against Troy that the Kings and Princes of Greece were about to wage. The wise Odysseus, foreseeing the disasters that would befall all that entered that war, was loth to go. And so when Agamemnon's messenger came to the island of Ithaka where he was King, Odysseus pretended to be mad. And that the messenger, Palamedes, might believe he was mad indeed, he did a thing that no man ever saw being done before—he took an ass and an ox and yoked them together to the same plough and began to plough a field.

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Total access to a free book library, is what we want to give you day by day. That is why we constantly make a careful selection of books about topics of great interest, and share it with you. In this opportunity we have prepared for you a list of books about Norse Mythology. The central axis of the Norse Mythology , also called Germanic Mythology, was the set of stories of religious nature that gave meaning to the life of the Vikings. Among the gods best known for their stories, we can mention Odin , Freyja , Thor and Loki. The source of information of all that is known about this mythology is constituted mainly by the Eddas.

Что за чепуха. И ради этого он вызвал меня в субботу. - Как сказать… - Она заколебалась.  - Несколько месяцев назад к нам попал перехват КОМИНТ, на расшифровку ушло около часа, но там мы столкнулись с удивительно длинным шифром - что-то около десяти тысяч бит. - Около часа, говоришь? - хмуро спросил .

Nordic Gods and Heroes

Этот разговор был ей неприятен.

ГЛАВА 95 Кровь Христа… чаша спасения… Люди сгрудились вокруг бездыханного тела на скамье. Вверху мирно раскачивалась курильница. Халохот, расталкивая людей, двигался по центральному проходу, ища глазами намеченную жертву. Он где-то. Халохот повернулся к алтарю.

Съехав на эту же улицу, оно начало набирать скорость, двигаясь прямо в лоб мотоциклу. Он должен был бы удариться в панику, но этого не произошло: он точно знал, куда держит путь. Свернув влево, на Менендес-пелайо, он прибавил газу. Мотоцикл пересек крохотный парк и выкатил на булыжную мостовую Матеус-Гаго - узенькую улицу с односторонним движением, ведущую к порталу Баррио - Санта-Крус. Еще чуть-чуть, подумал .

+20 Free Norse Mythology Books [PDF]

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