working principle of motor and generator pdf

Working Principle Of Motor And Generator Pdf

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Published: 16.12.2020

The learning objectives in this section will help your students master the following standards:. Electric motors , which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, are the most common application of magnetic force on current-carrying wires.

The Electric Motor and Generator are differentiated on various factors like the main principle of working or function of the motor and generator. Consumption or production of electricity, its driven element, the existence of the current in the winding. The Difference Between the Motor and the Generator are explained below in the tabulated form.

Question 1 What is an electric motor? Question 2 On what principle does electric motor works? Question 3 Explain the construction of electric motor? Question 4 Give commercial use of electric motor?

Electric Motor

The electric generator was invented before the correlation between electricity as well as magnetism was discovered. These generators use electrostatic principles to operate with the help of plates, moving belts which are charged electrically as well as disks to carry charge toward an electrode with high potential. Generators use two mechanisms to generate the charge like the triboelectric effect otherwise electrostatic induction. So, it generates low current as well as very high voltage due to the complexity of insulating machines as well as their inefficiency. The power ratings of Electrostatic generators are low so they never utilized for electrical power generation. The practical applications of this generator are to supply power to X-ray Tubes as well as in atomic particle accelerators. An alternate name of an electric generator is a dynamo for transmission as well as the distribution of energy over power lines to different applications like domestic, industrial, commercial, etc.

Commutator (electric)

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft. Electric motors can be powered by direct current DC sources, such as from batteries, or rectifiers , or by alternating current AC sources, such as a power grid, inverters or electrical generators. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates with a reversed flow of power, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Electric motors may be classified by considerations such as power source type, internal construction, application and type of motion output. In addition to AC versus DC types, motors may be brushed or brushless , may be of various phase see single-phase , two-phase , or three-phase , and may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled. General-purpose motors with standard dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use.

Generators are useful appliances that supply electrical power during a power outage and prevent discontinuity of daily activities or disruption of business operations. Generators are available in different electrical and physical configurations for use in different applications. In the following sections, we will look at how a generator functions, the main components of a generator, and how a generator operates as a secondary source of electrical power in residential and industrial applications. An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy obtained from an external source into electrical energy as the output. Instead, it uses the mechanical energy supplied to it to force the movement of electric charges present in the wire of its windings through an external electric circuit.

Schematics and operation of different types of motor DC motors Motors and generators Alternators Back emf 'Universal' motors Build a simple motor AC motors synchronous and stepper motors Induction motors Squirrel cage motors Three phase induction motors Linear motors Homopolar motors and generators separate page. For example, the animation at right has just one loop of wire, no bearings and a very simple geometry. Real motors use the same principles, but their geometry is usually complicated. If you already understand the basic principles of the various types of motors, you may want to go straight to the more complex and subtle cases described in How real electric motors work , by Prof John Storey. DC motors A simple DC motor has a coil of wire that can rotate in a magnetic field. The current in the coil is supplied via two brushes that make moving contact with a split ring. The coil lies in a steady magnetic field.

Basic construction and working of a DC Generator.

A dc generator is an electrical machine which converts mechanical energy into direct current electricity. This energy conversion is based on the principle of production of dynamically induced emf. This article outlines basic construction and working of a DC generator.

A dynamo is an electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor , the alternating-current alternator , and the rotary converter. Today, the simpler alternator dominates large scale power generation , for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons. A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator. Also, converting alternating to direct current using rectifiers such as vacuum tubes or more recently via solid state technology is effective and usually economical.

A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit. It consists of a cylinder composed of multiple metal contact segments on the rotating armature of the machine. Two or more electrical contacts called " brushes " made of a soft conductive material like carbon press against the commutator, making sliding contact with successive segments of the commutator as it rotates. The windings coils of wire on the armature are connected to the commutator segments. Commutators are used in direct current DC machines: dynamos DC generators and many DC motors as well as universal motors.

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Electric motor



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