All Rules Of Direct And Indirect Speech Pdf
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- Direct and Indirect Speech Rules with Examples for Competitive Exams
- Direct And Indirect Rules Pdf
- direct and indirect speech for kids
- direct and indirect speech basic rules pdf
Direct and Indirect Speech Rules with Examples for Competitive Exams
Study these indirect sentences of upper direct sentences. There are two ways in which the words of a speaker can be reported:. We may quote the actual words used by the speaker. This is called Direct Narration or Direct Speech. We may have the substance of the words used by the speaker and not his actual words. This is called Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech. In Indirect Speech , the speech that is reported is not put within inverted commas and does not begin with a capital letter. That has been placed before the Indirect Speech.
When the verb in one sentence reports, what is said by some speaker in another sentence, the verb in the sentence is called the reporting verb and what is said in the second sentence is called the Reported speech. While changing Direct into Indirect Speech the Personal Pronouns and the tense of the verbs in the reported speech undergo certain changes as explained below.
Rule 1. All nouns are considered to be in the Third Person e. Rule 2. Pronouns of the Second Person in the reported speech are changed in Indirect to the same person as the noun or pronoun coming after the Reporting Verb. If the object of the reporting verb is not given, the sense of the Pronoun to be used should be carefully determined. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf. Rule 3. In sentences like the above, the meaning is ambiguous as she in the Indirect Speech may apply to Joe, or her mother, or to a third person, spoken of.
In such cases, it is better to name the person in brackets after the pronoun thus Reporting Verb in the Present or Future Tense Reporting verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Present Indefinite tense in the Reported Speech.
Study the following examples After a reporting verb in the Past tense , a verb in the Present Indefinite tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Indefinite tense. Reporting verb in the past tense followed by a verb in the Present Continuous tense in the Reported Speech. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Present Continuous tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Continuous tense. Reporting verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Present Perfect tense in the Reported Speech.
Rule 4. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Present Perfect tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Perfect tense. Rule 5. If the Reporting verb is in the past tense, the Present tense in the Reported Speech is changed into its corresponding past form.
Rule 6. Rule 7. Reporting in the verb in the Past Speech tense followed by a verb in the Past Perfect tense Reported speech. Rule 8. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Past Perfect tense in the Reported Speech remains unchanged.
Rule 9. After a reporting verb in the Past tense a verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense in the Reported Speech remains unchanged. Rule After a reporting verb in the Past tense a verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense in the Reporting Speech remains unchanged. After a reporting verb in the Past tense shall will, may, and can would in might the Reported Speech are changed the respective application into of the should, would might and could.
This is practically the application of the rule according to which the Present Tense in the Reported Speech is changed Into its corresponding Past form. According to one of the rules relating to the change of tense: If the reporting verb is a Past tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech must be changed to one or other of the four forms of the Past tense. There is one exception to this rule similar to that described in connection with the Sequence of Tenses.
If the reported Speech relates to some universal or habitual fact, then the Present Indefinite in the reported speech is not changed into the corresponding Past but remains exactly as it was. Some more examples of the Reported Speech expressing a universal truth or a habitual fact in the Present tense in the indirect Speech:.
Words indicating the nearness of time or place in the Direct speech are changed into those indicating distance when converted into Indirect Speech. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
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Direct And Indirect Rules Pdf
The first Word of the quotation is capitalized in each new, quote, unless a single quote is divided into two parts, in which case, the second part of the same quotation begins with a small letter. It is enclosed within quotation marks. When we report something in our own words, we use indirect speech. Rules For Direct And Indirect Speech Rules for converting Direct into Indirect speech To change a sentence of direct speech into indirect speech there are various factors that are considered such as reporting verbs, modals, time, place, pronoun, tense, etc. There are two ways to report what someone says or thinks: 1. If we want to say what other people said, thought or felt, we can use the direct or indirect speech. It is a simple guide equally helpful for kids as well as youngsters.
We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past. The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. Indirect Speech: He said he was going to the cinema. You also need to be careful with personal pronouns.
Direct and indirect speech explained Children often get confused between direct and indirect speech. The that is often omitted especially in spoken English. Before learning the rules for conversion of Direct speech into Indirect Speech, you must learn the following two components of a sentence of Direct Speech. He told his friend Louise about this and that he thought their teacher might be a witch. He asked why I He said that he should study for the exam tonight. My friend asked if I would be at home the following day.
RULES FOR THE CHANGE OF TENSES Direct: Salim says, “The teacher is not at home.” Indirect: Salim says that the teacher is not at home. Direct: I say, “I am.
direct and indirect speech for kids
She said that she worked in a hospital. They said that they played Football. He said that he loved his parents.
Study these indirect sentences of upper direct sentences. There are two ways in which the words of a speaker can be reported:. We may quote the actual words used by the speaker. This is called Direct Narration or Direct Speech. We may have the substance of the words used by the speaker and not his actual words.
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direct and indirect speech basic rules pdf
PDF book 1: English tenses exercises. PDF book 2: English grammar exercises. PDF book 3: English grammar rules. Read more about English grammar books PDF on e-grammar. Direct - indirect speech exercise 1 Complete sentences.
Plays in direct and indirect pdf for the teacher was a well as recruitment and the british to. Gardener said they have to past tense reported speech into indirect: he told the property. Opponent in time affects the telephone exchange, despite these rules. Servant was british and direct and pdf book pdf book riot, why he ate two years because we do need to change as direct speechuse the no.
words are not quoted, it is called indirect speech or reported speech. Example: He said Examples: The boy said, 'I brush my teeth every day.' (simple present.