Communicative Language Teaching Approach Advantages And Disadvantages Pdf
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- Advantages and Disadvantages of Communicative Approach in Teaching English as Second Language
- Audio-lingual method
- The Advantages of Communicative Language Teaching
- The Advantages of Communicative Language Teaching
Advantages and Disadvantages of Communicative Approach in Teaching English as Second Language
The Communicative Approach , also known as communicative language teaching CLT , emphasizes interaction and problem solving as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning English - or any language. As such, it tends to emphasise activities such as role play , pair work and group work. It switched traditional language teaching's emphasis on grammar , and the teacher-centred classroom , to that of the active use of authentic language in learning and acquisition.
CLT is interested in giving students the skills to be able to communicate under various circumstances. As such, it places less emphasis on the learning of specific grammatical rules and more on obtaining native-speaker-like fluency and pronunciation. Students are assessed on their level of communicative competence rather than on their explicit knowledge. It is more of an approach or philosophy than a highly structured methodology. David Nunan famously listed five key elements to the communicative approach: .
Over the years it had become clear to its proponents that mastering grammatical forms and structures did not prepare the learners well enough to use the language they are learning effectively when communicating with others. As a result, situational language teaching and its theoretical conjectures were questioned by British linguists. Some of the linguists had the task of providing the Council of Europe with a standardized programme for foreign language teaching.
He analyzed the existing syllabus types grammatical and situational and the communicative meanings that a language learner needs to understand. In place of the existing syllabus Wilkins proposed a notional syllabus. This syllabus was not organized in terms of grammatical structures but rather specified what meanings the learners needed in order to communicate. Now it is seen as an approach that pursues two main goals.
Another important name associated with communicative language teaching is A. This covers both the spoken and written language and all four language skills.
Learning strategies, like allowing learners to become more self-directed and more independent in learning the new language help them to participate actively in communication. One major feature of communicative language teaching is pair and group work. That helps the students to become more independent and to accept responsibility. Oxford, , p.
The learner should enter into situations where communication takes place as much as possible to increase his or her communicative proficiency. Teachers no longer rely on activities that require repetition , accuracy and the memorization of sentences and grammatical patterns; instead, they require the learners to negotiate meaning and to interact meaningfully in the new language.
Learners have to participate in classroom activities based on a cooperative rather than individualistic approach to learning; they need to listen to their peers in order to carry out group work successfully.
The teacher adopts different roles. Instructional tasks become less important and fade into the background. These changes give the teacher more scope for variety and creativity and she gives up her status as a person of authority in a teacher-learner hierarchy. Materials play an important role in communicative language teaching.
They provide the basis for communication among the learners. These are text-based materials, task-based materials and realia. Text-based material like textbooks will, if designed on CLT principles, offer the learners many kinds of prompts on which they can build up conversations. They will typically contain visual cues, pictures and sentence fragments which the learners can use as a starting point for conversation.
Other books consist of different texts the teacher can use for pair work. Both learners get texts with different information and the task is to ask each other questions to get to know the content of the missing piece. Task-based material consists of exercise handbooks, cue cards, activity cards, pair-communication practice materials and student-interaction practice booklets. Pair-communication practice material contains material contains two sets of material for a pair of students.
It is similar to a task using text-based material. Both students have different kinds of information and through communication they need to put the parts together. Other pair-work tasks involve one student as an interviewer and the other one the interviewee. Using realia in communicative language teaching means using authentic material, for example newspaper articles, photos, maps, symbols, and many more.
Material which can be touched and held makes speaking and learning more concrete and meaningful. Maps can be used to describe the way from one point to another and photos can be used for describing where things are placed, in front of, on top of or underneath something, and so on.
Usually the class is divided into several groups and each group has a different piece of information needed to complete an activity. The task of the class is to fit all the pieces together to complete the whole. They must use their language resources and communicative strategies to communicate with each other in order to get the information the groups do not have. For example the students could learn about Britain when introducing the country. The teacher splits the class into four to five groups, depending on the number of students.
Every group gets a text containing information on Britain, for example about politics, sights or differences to Germany. The learners take notes and help each other when questions arise. They are then rearranged into groups containing a person from group A, one from B, one from C, and so on. Now the learners discuss and exchange the information they worked on in the first groups so that everyone has all the information about Britain and is able to answer questions the teacher could ask.
This activity forces the pupils to talk, even the ones who do not normally speak that much in class, because they are all dependent on the information another student has. This enables the learners to be more confident when interacting with other people and they also enjoy talking more. The students are allowed to make mistakes but they need to be corrected — preferably not whilst in the middle of a conversation - by the teacher in order to improve and so as not to make the same mistake again and again.
The teacher needs to prepare the material at home and needs to make it as motivating and creative as possible so that the students find the tasks meaningful and motivating, and are eager to communicate with each other. In the first part of his "Critical look", after acknowledging the major contributions the Communicative Approach has made to modern foreign language teaching, Swan points out two, complementary, drawbacks, based on what he perceives is its dogmatic approach: the apparent "belief that students do not possess, or cannot transfer from their mother tongue, normal communication skills" and "the 'whole-system' fallacy" which "arises when the linguist, over-excited about his or her analysis of a piece of language or behaviour, sets out to teach everything that has been observed often including the metalanguage used to describe the phenomena , without stopping to ask how much of the teaching is a new to the students and b relevant to their needs.
In his second article, Swan states that the "real issue is not which syllabus to put first: it is how to integrate eight or so syllabuses functional, notional, situational, topic, phonological, lexical, structural, skills into a sensible teaching programme" and that "A good language course is likely to include lessons which concentrate on particular structures, lessons which deal with areas of vocabulary, lessons on functions, situation-based lessons, pronunciation lessons, lessons on productive and receptive skills, and several other kinds of component He argues that once they know how to "carry out the main communicative functions", according to the course, students still need to learn most of the language, i.
Oxford, Rebecca L. Language learning strategies: what every teacher should know. United States of America. Richards, Jack C. Communicative language teaching today. Cambridge University Press. Approaches and methods in language teaching 2nd ed. New York. Savignon, Sandra J. Initiatives in communicative language teaching. Reading, Massachusetts. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Interpreting communicative language teaching: Contexts and concerns in teacher education.
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Most groups are enthusiastic about the lesson opportunities which CLT offers. However, some also indicated they felt constrained by the system under which they operated, especially those teaching in settings which are particularly exam-focused. In addition, they queried the relevance of CLT to their situation, where many of the students never used English outside the classroom. In contrast, I had shifted across a spectrum of learners, enthusiastically taking CLT along with me as universally appropriate. Taking my colleagues' concerns on board, I began to question the appropriateness of CLT for some of these diverse learner groups. This was supported by current reading on the topic; the titles of some articles see the Reference list made me think I should give up the support for CLT then and there. It really does benefit the students in a variety of ways.
Douglas Brown. Communicative Language Teaching CLT can be interpreted as a set of principles about the objectives of language teaching, the types of classroom activities that effectively promote learning, and the responsibility of teachers and learners in the classroom Richards, In this article, we are sharing notes of English pedagogy with you all. More specifically, in this paper we address to what extent collaborative work, attention to language and content and corrective feedback are observed during teacher-student and peer interaction in these educational settings. Communicative Language Teaching CLT is an approach to language teaching that gained traction in the s.
Some prominent definitions of Communicative Language Teaching are mentioned along with the origin, theoretical background and major characteristic features. This paper also explain who this approach has made language learning more communicative with reference to many researchers conducted studies on this approach. I shall also explain the advantage and disadvantage of CLT in implementation. Finally the conclusion is drawn as per the review of the literature indicated. Introduction In the history of language teaching, certain methods such as Audio-lingual, Grammar Translation, Suggestopedia and Total Physical Response have come into view. All these methods have been widely and extensively discussed and evaluated by researchers and scholars.
Communicative approach is much more pupil-orientated, because it is based on pupils' needs and interests. Communicative approach seeks to personalise and localise language and adapt it to interests of pupils. Meaningful language is always more easily retained by learners.
The Advantages of Communicative Language Teaching
Communicative language teaching CLT is the move from teaching language as individual linguistics structures to teaching people how to use language effectively to communicate with others, it is a move from teaching linguistic competence to communicative competence. Communicative competence essentially suggests that teaching learners to form grammatically correct sentences is not enough, Learners also need to be able to use language appropriately in a variety of contexts and situations.. The communicative approach or Communicative Language Teaching CLT , is the name which was given to a set of beliefs including not only an examination of what aspects of language toteach, but also a shift in emphasis in how to teach.
The Communicative Approach , also known as communicative language teaching CLT , emphasizes interaction and problem solving as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning English - or any language. As such, it tends to emphasise activities such as role play , pair work and group work. It switched traditional language teaching's emphasis on grammar , and the teacher-centred classroom , to that of the active use of authentic language in learning and acquisition. CLT is interested in giving students the skills to be able to communicate under various circumstances.
The Advantages of Communicative Language Teaching
Никакого различия. - Мы погибли, - прошептала Мидж. - Подождите, - сказала Сьюзан.
Фонтейн сурово взглянул на. Уж о чем о чем, а о стрессовых ситуациях директор знал. Он был уверен, что чрезмерный нажим не приведет ни к чему хорошему. - Расслабьтесь, мистер Беккер. Если будет ошибка, мы попробуем снова, пока не добьемся успеха. - Плохой совет, мистер Беккер, - огрызнулся Джабба. - Нужно сразу быть точным.
- Ты найдешь терминал Хейла, а я тебя прикрою. Сьюзан была отвратительна даже мысль об. - Разве нельзя дождаться звонка Дэвида о той копии, что была у Танкадо. Стратмор покачал головой. - Чем быстрее мы внесем изменение в программу, тем легче будет все остальное.
Она понимала, что коммандер заплатил огромную цену за ее избавление. - Простите меня, - сказала. - За. - Ваши планы относительно Цифровой крепости… они рухнули. Стратмор покачал головой: - Отнюдь .
Дэвид - это отличная кандидатура. Стратмор отрешенно кивнул: - Он вернется сегодня вечером. Сьюзан представила себе, что пришлось пережить коммандеру, - весь этот груз бесконечного ожидания, бесконечные часы, бесконечные встречи. Говорили, что от него уходит жена, с которой он прожил лет тридцать. А в довершение всего - Цифровая крепость, величайшая опасность, нависшая над разведывательной службой. И со всем этим ему приходится справляться в одиночку.
Ответа не последовало. Сьюзан спустилась по лестнице на несколько ступенек.
Все данные говорят, что Танкадо ни о чем таком даже не подозревал. - Данные? - спросил Бринкерхофф. - Какие такие данные.
Партнер Танкадо - призрак. Северная Дакота - призрак, сказала она. Сплошная мистификация. Блестящий замысел.
Это означало, что на его, Халохота, стороне фактор внезапности, хотя вряд ли он в этом так уж нуждается, у него и так все козыри на руках. Ему на руку была даже конструкция башни: лестница выходила на видовую площадку с юго-западной стороны, и Халохот мог стрелять напрямую с любой точки, не оставляя Беккеру возможности оказаться у него за спиной, В довершение всего Халохот двигался от темноты к свету.
Халохот поднимался вверх с пистолетом в руке, прижимаясь вплотную к стене на тот случай, если Беккер попытается напасть на него сверху. Железные подсвечники, установленные на каждой площадке, стали бы хорошим оружием, если бы Беккер решил ими воспользоваться. Но если держать дистанцию, можно заметить его вовремя. У пистолета куда большая дальность действия, чем у полутораметрового подсвечника. Халохот двигался быстро, но осторожно.
Ничего не выйдет, - пробормотал. В разделе Служба сопровождения в справочнике было только три строчки; впрочем, ничего иного все равно не оставалось. Беккер знал лишь, что немец был с рыжеволосой спутницей, а в Испании это само по себе большая редкость. Клушар вспомнил, что ее звали Капля Росы. Беккер скорчил гримасу: что это за имя.
Ролдан сразу понял.