kyle mccarter samuel 1 and 2 analysis pdf

Kyle Mccarter Samuel 1 And 2 Analysis Pdf

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Samuel begins with the prophet Samuel 's birth [5] and God 's call to him as a boy. The story of the Ark of the Covenant that follows tells of Israel's oppression by the Philistines , which brought about Samuel's anointing of Saul as Israel's first king. But Saul proved unworthy and God's choice turned to David , who defeated Israel's enemies, purchased the threshing floor 2 Samuel , where his son, Solomon built the Temple and brought the Ark to Jerusalem.

Books of Samuel

Samuel begins with the prophet Samuel 's birth [5] and God 's call to him as a boy. The story of the Ark of the Covenant that follows tells of Israel's oppression by the Philistines , which brought about Samuel's anointing of Saul as Israel's first king.

But Saul proved unworthy and God's choice turned to David , who defeated Israel's enemies, purchased the threshing floor 2 Samuel , where his son, Solomon built the Temple and brought the Ark to Jerusalem.

God then promised David and his successors an everlasting dynasty. The childless Hannah vows to Yahweh of hosts that if she has a son, he will be dedicated to him. Eli , the priest of Shiloh where the Ark of the Covenant is located , blesses her, and a child named Samuel is born.

Samuel is dedicated to the Lord as a Nazirite — the only one besides Samson to be identified in the Bible. Eli's sons, Hophni and Phinehas , sin against God's laws and the people, which cause them to die in the battle of Aphek , but the child Samuel grows up "in the presence of the Lord.

The Philistines capture the Ark of the Covenant from Shiloh and take it to the temple of their god Dagon , who recognizes the supremacy of Yahweh. The Philistines are afflicted with plagues and return the ark to the Israelites, but to the territory of the tribe of Benjamin rather than to Shiloh.

The Philistines attack the Israelites gathered at Mizpah in Benjamin. Samuel appeals to Yahweh, the Philistines are decisively beaten, and the Israelites reclaim their lost territory. In Samuel's old age, he appoints his sons Joel and Abijah as judges, but because of their corruption the people ask for a king to rule over them.

God directs Samuel to grant them their wish despite his concerns, and gives them Saul from the tribe of Benjamin. Shortly after Saul leads Israel to victory over Nahash of Ammon. Despite his numerous military victories, Saul disobeys Yahweh's instruction of destroying Amalek by sparing the Amalekite ruler and the best portion of their flocks to present them as sacrifices. Samuel rebukes Saul and tells him that God has chosen another man to be king of Israel.

God tells Samuel to anoint David of Bethlehem as king, and David enters Saul's court as his armor-bearer and harpist. Saul's son and heir Jonathan befriends David and recognizes him as the rightful king. Saul plots David's death, but David flees into the wilderness where he becomes a champion of the Hebrews. David joins the Philistines, but he continues to secretly champion his own people until Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle at Mount Gilboa. At this point, David offers a majestic eulogy, where he praises the bravery and magnificence of both his friend Jonathan and King Saul.

The elders of Judah anoint David as king, but in the north Saul's son Ish-bosheth , or Ishbaal, rules over the northern tribes. After a long war, Ishbaal is murdered by Rechab and Baanah , two of his captains who hope for a reward from David.

But David has them killed for killing God's anointed. David is then anointed king of all Israel. David captures Jerusalem and brings the Ark there. David wishes to build a temple, but Nathan tells him that one of his sons will be the one to build the temple.

David commits adultery with Bathsheba , who becomes pregnant. When her husband Uriah the Hittite returns from battle, David encourages him to go home and see his wife, but Uriah declines in case David might need him. David then deliberately sends Uriah on a suicide mission, and for this, Yahweh sends disasters against David's house. Nathan tells David that the sword shall never depart from his house.

For the remainder of David's reign, problems occur. Amnon one of David's sons rapes his half-sister Tamar one of David's daughters. Absalom another son of David kills Amnon and rebels against his father, whereupon David flees from Jerusalem. Absalom is killed following the Battle of the Wood of Ephraim , and David is restored as king and returns to his palace.

Finally, only two contenders for the succession remain: Adonijah , son of David and Haggith, and Solomon , son of David and Bathsheba. The Book of Samuel 2 concludes with four chapters chapters 21 to 24 that lie outside the chronological narrative of Saul and David, a narrative that will continue in The Book of Kings. These four supplementary [8] chapters cover a great famine during David's reign; [9] the execution of seven of Saul's remaining descendants, only Mephibosheth being saved; [10] David's song of thanksgiving , [11] which is almost identical to Psalm 18 ; David's last words; [12] a list of David's " mighty warriors "; [13] an offering made by David using water from the well of Bethlehem; [14] David's sinful census ; [15] a plague over Israel which David opted for as preferable to either famine or oppression; [16] and the construction of an altar on land David purchased from Araunah the Jebusite.

The chronological narrative of succession resumes in the first Book of Kings , which relates how, as David lies dying, Bathsheba and Nathan ensure Solomon's elevation to the throne. What it is now commonly known as 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel are called by the Vulgate , in imitation of the Septuagint , 1 Kings and 2 Kings , respectively. Some Bibles still preserve the old denomination; for example, the Douay-Rheims Bible.

The Books of Samuel are considered to be based on both historical and legendary sources, primarily serving to fill the gap in Israelite history after the events described in Deuteronomy. The battles involving the destruction of the Canaanites are not supported by archaeological record, and it is now widely believed that the Israelites themselves originated as a sub-group of Canaanites.

According to passages 14b and 15a of the Bava Basra tractate of the Talmud , the book was written by Samuel up until 1 Samuel 25, which notes the death of Samuel, and the remainder by the prophets Gad and Nathan.

However, even prior to this, the medieval Jewish commentator Isaac Abarbanel noted that the presence of anachronistic expressions such as "to this day" and "in the past" indicated that there must have been a later editor such as Jeremiah or Ezra. The Deuteronomistic view is that an early version of the history was composed in the time of king Hezekiah 8th century BC ; the bulk of the first edition dates from his grandson Josiah at the end of the 7th BC, with further sections added during the Babylonian exile 6th century BC and the work was substantially complete by about BC.

Further editing was apparently done even after then. For example, A. Graeme Auld, Professor of Hebrew Bible at the University of Edinburgh, contends that the silver quarter-shekel which Saul's servant offers to Samuel in 1 Samuel 9 "almost certainly fixes the date of this story in the Persian or Hellenistic period " because a quarter-shekel was known to exist in Hasmonean times.

The 6th century BC authors and editors responsible for the bulk of the history drew on many earlier sources, including but not limited to an "ark narrative" 1 Samuel — and perhaps part of 2 Samuel 6 , a "Saul cycle" parts of 1 Samuel 9—11 and 13—14 , the "history of David's rise" 1 Samuel —2 Samuel , and the "succession narrative" 2 Samuel 9—20 and 1 Kings 1—2. This view of late compilation for Samuel has faced serious scholarly opposition on the basis that evidence for the Deuteronimistic history is scant, and that Deuteronimistic advocates are not in consensus as to the origin and extent of the History.

Secondly, the basic theological concerns identified with the Deuteronimistic school are tenets central to Hebrew theology in texts that are widely regarded as predating Josiah. Thirdly, there are notable differences in style and thematic emphasis between Deuteronomy and Samuel. Finally, there are widely acknowledged structural parallels between the Hittite suzerain treaty of the second millennium BC and the Book of Deuteronomy itself, far before the time of Josiah.

The alternative view is that it is difficult to determine when the events of Samuel were recorded: "There are no particularly persuasive reasons to date the sources used by the compiler later than the early tenth century events themselves, and good reason to believe that contemporary records were kept cf.

The sources used to construct 1 and 2 Samuel are believed to include the following: [37]. The Book of Samuel is a theological evaluation of kingship in general and of dynastic kingship and David in particular. Samuel answers the description of the "prophet like Moses" predicted in Deuteronomy — like Moses, he has direct contact with Yahweh , acts as a judge, and is a perfect leader who never makes mistakes.

But the king they are given is Yahweh's gift, and Samuel explains that kingship can be a blessing rather than a curse if they remain faithful to their God. On the other hand, total destruction of both king and people will result if they turn to wickedness.

Saul is the chosen one: tall, handsome and "goodly", [48] a king appointed by Yahweh, and anointed by Samuel, Yahweh's prophet, and yet he is ultimately rejected. One of the main units within Samuel is the "History of David's Rise", the purpose of which is to justify David as the legitimate successor to Saul.

Saul and never taking any of his numerous chances to seize the throne by violence. Its editors note that "the text has suffered considerably and reconstructions are conjectural". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Book of the Bible. Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy. Main article: Samuel. Main article: Saul. Main article: David. Catholic Encyclopedia. Brazos Press.

Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in ancient times. Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. SUNY Press. Random House LLC. Society of Biblical Lit. Los Angeles Times. September 28, Auld, Graeme In James D. Dunn and John William Rogerson ed. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Bergen, David T. Breytenbach, Andries In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H. Van Rooy ed.

Coogan, Michael D. Roberts ed. David and Zion: biblical studies in honor of J. Eynikel, Erik Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Gordon, Robert Paternoster Press. Halpern, Baruch Hertzberg, Hans Wilhelm Westminster John Knox Press.

Jones, Gwilym H

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Saul's prophetic representations and its parody in 1 Samuel. The paper engages the intrigue of Saul's description as a "prophetic figure" in the beginning of 1 Samuel and his description as the "patron" of witchcraft at Endor. In these conflicting representations of Saul, one of the hidden agenda of the narrator of Samuel is clearly achieved because he has successfully transformed a prophetic tradition which appears originally to attribute prophetic feats to the first Israelite king, and creatively turned the same tradition against itself by amusingly portraying the same character as the practitioner of witchcraft. Consequently, through the technique of parody, the original prophetic figure Saul is humorously no longer among the prophets, but now in consultation of a witch. The last recorded words of Saul to his bodyguard show that Saul preferred to take his own life rather than to face the "mockery" of his Philistine enemies. Taking these critiques seriously, it is then possible to understand the Saul material not from the tampering hands of the redactor but from the powerful skill of the narrator who uses his sources discretely with the sole intention to make a subtle mockery of Saul. To show their striking contrast, the deuteronomist placed these poles of ancient guidance in clear opposition by describing them side-by-side and

In his series debut, P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. McCarter's treatment of "I Samuel" consists of: "Introduction": review of the literary problems and historical circumstances surrounding the writing of the book. The two books of "Samuel" narrate the establishment and expansion of the Kingdom of Israel. From Samuel's providential birth, to his appointment of Saul as Israel's first king, to the demise of Saul and the rise of David as his successor, "I and II Samuel" are filled with the stuff of Israel's everyday experience. Religious, political, economic, military, agricultural, and many other features of the Middle Eastern landscape populate this sacred narrative.

I Samuel (Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries Series)

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