astaxanthin a review of its chemistry and applications pdf

Astaxanthin A Review Of Its Chemistry And Applications Pdf

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Ambigaipalan, P. Bioactive peptides from shrimp shell processing discards: Antioxidant and biological activities. Journal of Functional Foods, 7—

Astaxanthin Structure , Metabolism , and Health Benefits

Astaxanthin is a natural pigment, known for its strong antioxidant activity and numerous health benefits to human and animals. The potential health benefits have generated a growing commercial interest, and the escalating demand has prompted the exploration of alternative supply chain. Astaxanthin naturally occurs in many sea creatures such as trout, shrimp, and microalgae, some fungi, bacteria, and flowering plants, acting to protect hosts against environmental stress and adverse conditions. Due to the rapid growth and simple growth medium requirement, microbes, such as the microalga, Haematococcus pluvialis , and the fungus Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous , have been developed to produce astaxanthin. With advances in metabolic engineering, non-carotenogenic microbes, such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae , have been purposed to produce astaxanthin and significant progress has been achieved. Here, we review the recent achievements in microbial astaxanthin biosynthesis with reference to metabolic engineering strategies and extraction methods, current challenges technical and regulatory , and commercialization outlook.

Route of exposure:. Biological location:. Cell and elements:. Biofluid and excreta:. Naturally occurring process:. Biological process:. Biochemical process:.

Microbial astaxanthin biosynthesis: recent achievements, challenges, and commercialization outlook

There has been considerable interest in the biological functions of astaxanthin and its potential applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetics, food, and feed industries in recent years. However, the unstable structure of astaxanthin considerably limits its application. Therefore, this study reports the encapsulation of astaxanthin in calcium alginate beads using the extrusion method to improve its stability. This study also evaluates the stability of the encapsulated astaxanthin under different storage conditions. The evaluation of astaxanthin stability under various environmental factors reveals that temperature is the most influential environmental factor in astaxanthin degradation.

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Common sources of natural astaxanthin are the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts.


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Astaxanthin: structural and functional aspects 1. Astaxantina: aspectos estruturais e funcionais. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid belonging to the xanthophyll class, has stirred great interest due to its antioxidant capacity and its possible role in reducing the risk of some diseases. Astaxanthin occurs naturally in microalgae, such as Haematococcus pluvialis and the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, and has also been considered to be the major carotenoid in salmon and crustaceans. Shrimp processing waste, which is generally discarded, is also an important source of astaxanthin.

Algae are a class of photosynthetic organisms found in both marine and freshwaters habitats. As these organisms have a short doubling time, they are considered among fastest growing creatures. They have different pathways to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide and to efficiently utilize the nutrients to convert it into biomass. In few years, a focus has been shifted towards these organisms due to their food and fuel production capability.

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Darren M.

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Nathalie S.

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Marcel M.

PDF | Astaxanthin is a carotenoid widely used in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to provide the pink color characteristic of that species.

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